5 research outputs found

    Introducing Carbon Diffusion Barriers for Uniform, High-Quality Graphene Growth from Solid Sources

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    Carbon diffusion barriers are introduced as a general and simple method to prevent premature carbon dissolution and thereby to significantly improve graphene formation from the catalytic transformation of solid carbon sources. A thin Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> barrier inserted into an amorphous-C/Ni bilayer stack is demonstrated to enable growth of uniform monolayer graphene at 600 °C with domain sizes exceeding 50 μm, and an average Raman D/G ratio of <0.07. A detailed growth rationale is established via in situ measurements, relevant to solid-state growth of a wide range of layered materials, as well as layer-by-layer control in these systems

    The Phase of Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles during Carbon Nanotube Growth

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    We study the Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes by complementary in situ grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, in situ X-ray reflectivity, and environmental transmission electron microscopy. We find that typical oxide supported Fe catalyst films form widely varying mixtures of bcc and fcc phased Fe nanoparticles upon reduction, which we ascribe to variations in minor commonly present carbon contamination levels. Depending on the as-formed phase composition, different growth modes occur upon hydrocarbon exposure: For γ-rich Fe nanoparticle distributions, metallic Fe is the active catalyst phase, implying that carbide formation is not a prerequisite for nanotube growth. For α-rich catalyst mixtures, Fe<sub>3</sub>C formation more readily occurs and constitutes part of the nanotube growth process. We propose that this behavior can be rationalized in terms of kinetically accessible pathways, which we discuss in the context of the bulk iron–carbon phase diagram with the inclusion of phase equilibrium lines for metastable Fe<sub>3</sub>C. Our results indicate that kinetic effects dominate the complex catalyst phase evolution during realistic CNT growth recipes

    The Phase of Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles during Carbon Nanotube Growth

    No full text
    We study the Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes by complementary in situ grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, in situ X-ray reflectivity, and environmental transmission electron microscopy. We find that typical oxide supported Fe catalyst films form widely varying mixtures of bcc and fcc phased Fe nanoparticles upon reduction, which we ascribe to variations in minor commonly present carbon contamination levels. Depending on the as-formed phase composition, different growth modes occur upon hydrocarbon exposure: For γ-rich Fe nanoparticle distributions, metallic Fe is the active catalyst phase, implying that carbide formation is not a prerequisite for nanotube growth. For α-rich catalyst mixtures, Fe<sub>3</sub>C formation more readily occurs and constitutes part of the nanotube growth process. We propose that this behavior can be rationalized in terms of kinetically accessible pathways, which we discuss in the context of the bulk iron–carbon phase diagram with the inclusion of phase equilibrium lines for metastable Fe<sub>3</sub>C. Our results indicate that kinetic effects dominate the complex catalyst phase evolution during realistic CNT growth recipes

    The Phase of Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles during Carbon Nanotube Growth

    No full text
    We study the Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes by complementary in situ grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, in situ X-ray reflectivity, and environmental transmission electron microscopy. We find that typical oxide supported Fe catalyst films form widely varying mixtures of bcc and fcc phased Fe nanoparticles upon reduction, which we ascribe to variations in minor commonly present carbon contamination levels. Depending on the as-formed phase composition, different growth modes occur upon hydrocarbon exposure: For γ-rich Fe nanoparticle distributions, metallic Fe is the active catalyst phase, implying that carbide formation is not a prerequisite for nanotube growth. For α-rich catalyst mixtures, Fe<sub>3</sub>C formation more readily occurs and constitutes part of the nanotube growth process. We propose that this behavior can be rationalized in terms of kinetically accessible pathways, which we discuss in the context of the bulk iron–carbon phase diagram with the inclusion of phase equilibrium lines for metastable Fe<sub>3</sub>C. Our results indicate that kinetic effects dominate the complex catalyst phase evolution during realistic CNT growth recipes

    Observing Graphene Grow: Catalyst–Graphene Interactions during Scalable Graphene Growth on Polycrystalline Copper

    No full text
    Complementary in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometry, and environmental scanning electron microscopy are used to fingerprint the entire graphene chemical vapor deposition process on technologically important polycrystalline Cu catalysts to address the current lack of understanding of the underlying fundamental growth mechanisms and catalyst interactions. Graphene forms directly on metallic Cu during the high-temperature hydrocarbon exposure, whereby an upshift in the binding energies of the corresponding C1s XPS core level signatures is indicative of coupling between the Cu catalyst and the growing graphene. Minor carbon uptake into Cu can under certain conditions manifest itself as carbon precipitation upon cooling. Postgrowth, ambient air exposure even at room temperature decouples the graphene from Cu by (reversible) oxygen intercalation. The importance of these dynamic interactions is discussed for graphene growth, processing, and device integration
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