183 research outputs found

    The function of salivary proteins and the regulation of their secretion by salivary glands

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    Salivary glycoproteins give saliva its characteristic physical properties and enable it to form a thin film over hard and soft tissues in the mouth. Oral health and homeostasis are dependent upon the functions performed by the salivary film and most of these functions, including lubrication, barrier function and microbial interactions, are in turn dependent upon salivary proteins. Some salivary proteins appear to fulfil more than one function and some functions are performed by a number of different proteins. There are relatively great variations in amounts of different proteins present in salivas from different subjects. However, subjects with low levels of particular proteins do not appear to suffer terms of oral health and this may be due to functional compensation by other proteins. Salivary protein secretion by salivary glands is dependent upon stimuli mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and both acinar and ductal cells make a contribution to protein secretion. In addition to the well-characterized storage granule exocytosis pathway of protein secretion, salivary cells can secrete proteins by vesi cular, non-storage granule pathways. These include direct secretion of newly synthesized proteins to saliva and to the glandular matrix and to circulation, and transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulin A into saliva following secretion by glandular plasma cells. Recent data indicate that all ofthese pathways are subject to regulation by autonomic ner ves. Resynthesis of some salivary proteins following secretion also shows a dependency upon nerve-mediated stimuli. The distal intracellular mechanisms coupling stimulation to synthesis are uncertain although the proximal events appear to be similar to those coupling stimulation to exocytosis. The synthesis of some salivary proteins can be upregulated by cy-tokines released from inflammatory cells and this can lead to increased salivary levels of antimicrobial proteins including lactoferrin and immunoglobulin A.Biomedical Reviews 1998; 9: 3-15

    Developing and Standardizing a Protocol for Quantitative Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( <sup>1</sup> H NMR) Spectroscopy of Saliva

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    Metabolic profiling by <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectroscopy is an underutilized technology in salivary research, although preliminary studies have identified promising results in multiple fields (diagnostics, nutrition, sports physiology). Translation of preliminary findings into validated, clinically approved knowledge is hindered by variability in protocol for the collection, storage, preparation, and analysis of saliva. This study aims to evaluate the effects of differing sample pretreatments on the <sup>1</sup>H NMR metabolic profile of saliva. Protocol considerations are highly varied in the current literature base, including centrifugation, freeze–thaw cycles, and different NMR quantification methods. Our findings suggest that the <sup>1</sup>H NMR metabolite profile of saliva is resilient to any change resulting from freezing, including freezing of saliva prior to centrifuging. However, centrifugation was necessary to remove an unidentified broad peak between 1.24 and 1.3 ppm, the intensity of which correlated strongly with saliva cellular content. This peak obscured the methyl peak from lactate and significantly affected quantification. Metabolite quantification was similar for saliva centrifuged between 750<i>g</i> to 15 000<i>g</i>. Quantification of salivary metabolites was similar whether quantified using internal phosphate-buffered sodium trimethylsilyl-[2,2,3,3-<sup>2</sup>H<sub>4</sub>]-propionate (TSP) or external TSP in a coaxial NMR tube placed inside the NMR tube containing the saliva sample. Our results suggest that the existing literature on salivary <sup>1</sup>H NMR will not have been adversely affected by variations of the common protocol; however, use of TSP as an internal standard without a buffered medium appears to affect metabolite quantification, notably for acetate and methanol. We include protocol recommendations to facilitate future NMR-based studies of saliva

    Determining bacterial and host contributions to the human salivary metabolome

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    BACKGROUND: Salivary metabolomics is rapidly advancing. AIM AND METHODS: To determine the extent to which salivary metabolites reflects host or microbial metabolic activity whole-mouth saliva (WMS), parotid saliva (PS) and plasma collected contemporaneously from healthy volunteers were analysed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Spectra underwent principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis and metabolite quantification. WMS samples were cultured on both sucrose and peptide-enriched media. Correlation between metabolite concentration and bacterial load was assessed. RESULTS: WMS contained abundant short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which were minimal in PS and plasma. WMS spectral exhibited greater inter-individual variation than those of PS or plasma (6.7 and 3.6 fold, respectively), likely reflecting diversity of microbial metabolomes. WMS bacterial load correlated strongly with SCFA levels. Additional WMS metabolites including amines, amino acids and organic acids were positively correlated with bacterial load. Lactate, urea and citrate appeared to enter WMS via PS and the circulation. Urea correlated inversely with WMS bacterial load. CONCLUSIONS: Oral microbiota contribute significantly to the WMS metabolome. Several WMS metabolites (lactate, urea and citrate) are derived from the host circulation. WMS may be particularly useful to aid diagnosis of conditions reflective of dysbiosis. WMS could also complement other gastrointestinal fluids in future metabolomic studies

    Duration of tooth alignment with fixed appliances: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    INTRODUCTION A key goal of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is alignment of the dentition, and this remains a commonly selected outcome in clinical studies investigating orthodontic tooth movement. This systematic review has evaluated treatment duration to achieve alignment of the mandibular dentition using fixed appliances. METHODS Systematic literature searches without restrictions were undertaken in 9 databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing duration and rate of tooth alignment using fixed appliances with or without treatment adjuncts published up to January 2021. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to Cochrane, random-effects meta-analyses of aggregate data, and individual patient data were conducted. RESULTS Thirty-five trials were included with 2258 participants (39% male; mean age 17.8 years), giving a pooled duration to achieve whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition of 263.0 days (4 trials; 95% confidence interval [CI], 186.7-339.4 days) and incisor alignment in the mandibular arch of 100.7 days (9 trials; 95% CI, 84.1-117.4 days). Surgical-assisted orthodontics was associated with reduced duration of incisor alignment: mean difference of 44.3 days less (4 trials; 95% CI, 20.0-68.9 days; P <0.001; high quality of evidence), whereas subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated significant effects of baseline crowding and premolar extractions. Individual patient data analysis from 3 RCTs indicated that for each additional participant age year, whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition took 13.7 days longer (3 trials; 95% CI, 7.7-17.7 days; P <0.001) and for each additional mm of irregularity, 17.5 days more were needed (2 trials; 95% CI, 9.8-25.2 days; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patient and treatment-related characteristics can significantly affect the duration of tooth alignment and should be taken into account both clinically and when designing trial outcomes. Future research studies investigating rates of orthodontic tooth alignment would benefit from adequate sample sizes and a more consistent methodology in outcome assessment. Data in this systematic review provides a basis for appropriate trial design for future RCTs investigating the rate of orthodontic tooth alignment with fixed appliances

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase increases secretion from inflamed salivary glands

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    Objective. Salivary gland secretion is dependent on cholinergic stimulation via autonomic nerves and calcium signalling in acinar cells. Secretory dysfunction associated with SS may be partly caused by the damaging effects of increased glandular concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) derived from up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) that accompanies glandular inflammation. The present study examines the effects of increased iNOS expression on salivary gland secretory function

    Diet Dynamics of the Adult Piscivorous Fish Community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995–1997

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    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995–1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time

    The radio source count at 93.2 GHz from observations of 9C sources using AMI and CARMA

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    We present results from follow-up observations of a sample of 80 radio sources, originally detected as part of the 15.2-GHz Ninth Cambridge (9C) survey. The observations were carried out, close to simultaneously, at two frequencies: 15.7 GHz, using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Large Array, and 93.2 GHz, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). There is currently little direct information on the 90-GHz-band source count for S ≲ 1 Jy. However, we have used the measured 15.7-to-93.2-GHz spectral-index distribution and 9C source count to predict the differential source count at 93.2 GHz as 26 ± 4(S/Jy)^(−2.15) Jy^(−1) sr^(−1); our projection is estimated to be most accurate for 10 ≲ S ≲ 100 mJy. Our estimated differential count is more than twice the 90-GHz prediction made by Waldram et al.; we believe that this discrepancy is because the measured 43-GHz flux densities used in making their prediction were too low. Similarly, our prediction is significantly higher than that of Sadler et al. at 95 GHz. Since our spectral-index distribution is similar to the 20-to-95-GHz distribution measured by Sadler et al. and used in making their prediction, we believe that the difference is almost entirely attributable to the dissimilarity in the lower frequency counts used in making the estimates