203 research outputs found

    Making a Choice

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    It is our responsibility as educators to see that our students receive training to meet the present-day challenges facing our clients. The graduate programs in social work are especially suited for training and implementing Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) as these programs prepare advanced practitioners to provide care to those with the greatest need and often the least access to mental health and addiction treatment. Schools of Social Work have a strong history of placing advanced clinical MSW interns that focus on diverse populations in behavioral health clinics, primary care clinics, hospitals, substance abuse clinics, schools, residential facilities, family preservation and reunification, child services as well as an essential presence in the VA system. Making a choice to include SBIRT training in our curricula is a viable strategy for enhancing the skills our students will need in practice with strong potential to increase the number of providers while significantly increasing access to behavioral interventions for clients and patients

    Effect of interleukin-6 receptor blockade on surrogates of vascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: MEASURE, a randomised, placebo-controlled study

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    Objectives The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blocker tocilizumab (TCZ) reduces inflammatory disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but elevates lipid concentrations in some patients. We aimed to characterise the impact of IL-6R inhibition on established and novel risk factors in active RA. Methods Randomised, multicentre, two-part, phase III trial (24-week double-blind, 80-week open-label), MEASURE, evaluated lipid and lipoprotein levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle composition, markers of coagulation, thrombosis and vascular function by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 132 patients with RA who received TCZ or placebo. Results Median total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels increased in TCZ versus placebo recipients by week 12 (12.6% vs 1.7%, 28.1% vs 2.2%, 10.6% vs −1.9%, respectively; all p&#60;0.01). There were no significant differences in mean small LDL, mean oxidised LDL or total HDL-C concentrations. However, HDL-associated serum amyloid A content decreased in TCZ recipients. TCZ also induced reductions (&#60;30%) in secretory phospholipase A2-IIA, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen and D-dimers and elevation of paraoxonase (all p&#60;0.0001 vs placebo). The ApoB/ApoA1 ratio remained stable over time in both groups. PWV decreases were greater with placebo than TCZ at 12 weeks (adjusted mean difference 0.79 m/s (95% CI 0.22 to 1.35; p=0.0067)). Conclusions These data provide the first detailed evidence for the modulation of lipoprotein particles and other surrogates of vascular risk with IL-6R inhibition. When compared with placebo, TCZ induced elevations in LDL-C but altered HDL particles towards an anti-inflammatory composition and favourably modified most, but not all, measured vascular risk surrogates. The net effect of such changes for cardiovascular risk requires determination.</p

    Effects of Training on Social Work, Nursing and Medical Trainees' Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Related to Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use

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    Indiana University's Schools of Social Work, Nursing and Medicine formed a consortium to advance education for Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). Trainees participated in SBIRT training and completed data collection before, immediately after, and 30 days after a face-to-face training. The study explored participants' perceptions about the training and the likelihood of implementing SBI in practice, including attitudes and beliefs that may be predictive of SBIRT utilization in clinical practice. Results show the training targeting SBI and MI behaviors may improve participants' self-reported competence with SBI. This improvement was consistent and strong in all programs. The study results also provided a preliminary indication that the training affected participants' perception of time utilization and compensation for performing SBI

    A Pilot Intervention to Increase Parent-Child Communication About Alcohol Avoidance

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    Enhancing parent-child communication regarding alcohol use through educational print correspondence is a potentially cost-effective tool in health promotion. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether a series of postcards addressing specific alcohol risk and protective factors, sent to the parents/guardians of preadolescents in two different school settings, influenced parent-child communication regarding alcohol use. Subjects for this study included parents of participating 6th grade students attending one neighborhood (N=262) and one magnet (bused) (N=388) inner-city school. Participating students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Baseline data were collected from students, enabling the intervention to be tailored to students\u27 individual needs. Parents of students assigned to the intervention were mailed up to 10 prevention postcards over five weeks. Parents completed a 10-item telephone survey eight weeks after implementation of the prevention postcards. The overall parent response rate was 74% (N=478). Results of this pilot intervention found that postcards increased parent-child communication regarding alcohol use, but that these efects difered by school setting and race. Although significant efects were found for the intervention group, further analysis revealed that efects were found only for White parents at the magnet school. Discussion of these differences and implications for research and educational programming are provided

    Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

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    Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms

    Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach

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    Citation: Lin, Z. M., Cuneo, M., Rowe, J. D., Li, M. J., Tell, L. A., Allison, S., . . . Gehring, R. (2016). Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach. Bmc Veterinary Research, 12, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0884-4Background: Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood and milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin (i.e., the marker residue CP-60,300), respectively, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based on these new data and related literature data, a NLME-PK compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to model plasma concentrations and cumulative excreted amount in milk. Monte Carlo simulations with 100 replicates were performed to predict the time when the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of milk concentrations was below the tolerance. Results: All animals were healthy throughout the study with normal appetite and milk production levels, and with mild-moderate injection-site reactions that diminished by the end of the study. The measured data showed that milk concentrations of the marker residue of tulathromycin were below the limit of detection (LOD = 1.8 ng/ml) 39 days after the second injection. A 2-compartment model with milk as an excretory compartment best described tulathromycin plasma and CP-60,300 milk pharmacokinetic data. The model-predicted data correlated with the measured data very well. The NLME-PK model estimated that tulathromycin plasma concentrations were below LOD (1.2 ng/ml) 43 days after a single injection, and 62 days after the second injection with a 95% confidence. These estimated times are much longer than the current meat withdrawal time recommendation of 18 days for tulathromycin in non-lactating cattle. Conclusions: The results suggest that twice subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin are a clinically safe extra-label alternative approach for treating pulmonary infections in lactating goats, but a prolonged withdrawal time of at least 39 days after the second injection should be considered to prevent violative residues in milk and any dairy goat being used for meat should have an extended meat withdrawal time

    HLA genotyping in the international Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium

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    Background Although human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ and DR loci appear to confer the strongest genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, more detailed information is required for other loci within the HLA region to understand causality and stratify additional risk factors. The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) study design included high-resolution genotyping of HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQ, and DP loci in all affected sibling pair and trio families, and cases and controls, recruited from four networks worldwide, for analysis with clinical phenotypes and immunological markers

    Citizen science and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

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    Traditional data sources are not sufficient for measuring the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. New and non-traditional sources of data are required. Citizen science is an emerging example of a non-traditional data source that is already making a contribution. In this Perspective, we present a roadmap that outlines how citizen science can be integrated into the formal Sustainable Development Goals reporting mechanisms. Success will require leadership from the United Nations, innovation from National Statistical Offices and focus from the citizen-science community to identify the indicators for which citizen science can make a real contribution
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