94 research outputs found

    Clearance of interstitial fluid (ISF) and CSF (CLIC) group-part of Vascular Professional Interest Area (PIA), updates in 2022-2023. Cerebrovascular disease and the failure of elimination of Amyloid-╬▓ from the brain and retina with age and Alzheimer's disease:Opportunities for therapy

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    This editorial summarizes advances from the Clearance of Interstitial Fluid and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CLIC) group, within the Vascular Professional Interest Area (PIA) of the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART). The overarching objectives of the CLIC group are to: (1) understand the age-related physiology changes that underlie impaired clearance of interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (CLIC); (2) understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD) in the brain; (3) establish novel diagnostic tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), retinal amyloid vasculopathy, amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) of spontaneous and iatrogenic CAA-related inflammation (CAA-ri), and vasomotion; and (4) establish novel therapies that facilitate IPAD to eliminate amyloid ╬▓ (A╬▓) from the aging brain and retina, to prevent or reduce AD and CAA pathology and ARIA side events associated with AD immunotherapy

    Loss of cholinergic innervation differentially affects eNOS-mediated blood flow, drainage of A╬▓ and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the cortex and hippocampus of adult mice

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    Vascular dysregulation and cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration are both early pathological events in the development of AlzheimerÔÇÖs disease (AD). Acetylcholine contributes to localised arterial dilatation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) during neurovascular coupling via activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Decreased vascular reactivity is suggested to contribute to impaired clearance of ╬▓-amyloid (A╬▓) along intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD) pathways of the brain, leading to the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). However, the possible relationship between loss of cholinergic innervation, impaired vasoreactivity and reduced clearance of A╬▓ from the brain has not been previously investigated. In the present study, intracerebroventricular administration of mu-saporin resulted in significant death of cholinergic neurons and fibres in the medial septum, cortex and hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice. Arterial spin labelling MRI revealed a loss of CBF response to stimulation of eNOS by the Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil hydrochloride in the cortex of denervated mice. By contrast, the hippocampus remained responsive to drug treatment, in association with altered eNOS expression. Fasudil hydrochloride significantly increased IPAD in the hippocampus of both control and saporin-treated mice, while increased clearance from the cortex was only observed in control animals. Administration of mu-saporin in the TetOAPPSweInd mouse model of AD was associated with a significant and selective increase in A╬▓40-positive CAA. These findings support the importance of the interrelationship between cholinergic innervation and vascular function in the aetiology and/or progression of CAA and suggest that combined eNOS/cholinergic therapies may improve the efficiency of A╬▓ removal from the brain and reduce its deposition as CAA

    Neurofilaments: neurobiological foundations for biomarker applications

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    Interest in neurofilaments has risen sharply in recent years with recognition of their potential as biomarkers of brain injury or neurodegeneration in CSF and blood. This is in the context of a growing appreciation for the complexity of the neurobiology of neurofilaments, new recognition of specialized roles for neurofilaments in synapses and a developing understanding of mechanisms responsible for their turnover. Here we will review the neurobiology of neurofilament proteins, describing current understanding of their structure and function, including recently discovered evidence for their roles in synapses. We will explore emerging understanding of the mechanisms of neurofilament degradation and clearance and review new methods for future elucidation of the kinetics of their turnover in humans. Primary roles of neurofilaments in the pathogenesis of human diseases will be described. With this background, we then will review critically evidence supporting use of neurofilament concentration measures as biomarkers of neuronal injury or degeneration. Finally, we will reflect on major challenges for studies of the neurobiology of intermediate filaments with specific attention to identifying what needs to be learned for more precise use and confident interpretation of neurofilament measures as biomarkers of neurodegeneration

    UK consensus on pre-clinical vascular cognitive impairment functional outcomes assessment: Questionnaire and workshop proceedings.

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    Assessment of outcome in preclinical studies of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is heterogenous. Through an ARUK Scottish Network supported questionnaire and workshop (mostly UK-based researchers), we aimed to determine underlying variability and what could be implemented to overcome identified challenges. Twelve UK VCI research centres were identified and invited to complete a questionnaire and attend a one-day workshop. Questionnaire responses demonstrated agreement that outcome assessments in VCI preclinical research vary by group and even those common across groups, may be performed differently. From the workshop, six themes were discussed: issues with preclinical models, reasons for choosing functional assessments, issues in interpretation of functional assessments, describing and reporting functional outcome assessments, sharing resources and expertise, and standardization of outcomes. Eight consensus points emerged demonstrating broadly that the chosen assessment should reflect the deficit being measured, and therefore that one assessment does not suit all models; guidance/standardisation on recording VCI outcome reporting is needed and that uniformity would be aided by a platform to share expertise, material, protocols and procedures thus reducing heterogeneity and so increasing potential for collaboration, comparison and replication. As a result of the workshop, UK wide consensus statements were agreed and future priorities for preclinical research identified

    Clearance of interstitial fluid (ISF) and CSF (CLIC) group-part of Vascular Professional Interest Area (PIA): Cerebrovascular disease and the failure of elimination of Amyloid-╬▓ from the brain and retina with age and Alzheimer's disease-Opportunities for Therapy.

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    Two of the key functions of arteries in the brain are (1) the well-recognized supply of blood via the vascular lumen and (2) the emerging role for the arterial walls as routes for the elimination of interstitial fluid (ISF) and soluble metabolites, such as amyloid beta (A╬▓), from the brain and retina. As the brain and retina possess no conventional lymphatic vessels, fluid drainage toward peripheral lymph nodes is mediated via transport along basement membranes in the walls of capillaries and arteries that form the intramural peri-arterial drainage (IPAD) system. IPAD tends to fail as arteries age but the mechanisms underlying the failure are unclear. In some people this is reflected in the accumulation of A╬▓ plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and deposition of A╬▓ within artery walls as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Knowledge of the dynamics of IPAD and why it fails with age is essential for establishing diagnostic tests for the early stages of the disease and for devising therapies that promote the clearance of A╬▓ in the prevention and treatment of AD and CAA. This editorial is intended to introduce the rationale that has led to the establishment of the Clearance of Interstitial Fluid (ISF) and CSF (CLIC) group, within the Vascular Professional Interest Area of the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment

    Retinal imaging in Alzheimer's and neurodegenerative diseases

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    In the last 20 years, research focused on developing retinal imaging as a source of potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, has increased significantly. The Alzheimer's Association and the Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment, Disease Monitoring editorial team (companion journal to Alzheimer's & Dementia) convened an interdisciplinary discussion in 2019 to identify a path to expedite the development of retinal biomarkers capable of identifying biological changes associated with AD, and for tracking progression of disease severity over time. As different retinal imaging modalities provide different types of structural and/or functional information, the discussion reflected on these modalities and their respective strengths and weaknesses. Discussion further focused on the importance of defining the context of use to help guide the development of retinal biomarkers. Moving from research to context of use, and ultimately to clinical evaluation, this article outlines ongoing retinal imaging research today in Alzheimer's and other brain diseases, including a discussion of future directions for this area of study
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