3,909 research outputs found

    Analogy Between Mass and Heat Transfer with Turbulent Flow

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    An analysis of combined heat and mass transfer from a flat plate has been made in terms of Prandtl t s simplified physical concept of the turbulent boundary layer. The results of the analysis show that for conditions of reasonably small heat and mass transfer, the ratio of the mass-and heat-transfer coefficients is dependent on the Reynolds number of the boundary layer, the Prandtl number of the medium of diffusion, and the Schmidt number of the diffusing fluid in the medium of diffusion. For the particular case of water evaporating into air, the ratio of mass-transfer coefficient to heat-transfer coefficient is found to be slightly greater than unity

    A General Correlation of Temperature Profiles Downstream of a Heated-Air Jet Directed Perpendicularly to an Air Stream

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    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the temperature profile downstream of a heated-air jet directed perpendicularly to an air stream. The profiles were determined at several positions downstream of the jet as functions of jet density, jet velocity, freestream density, free-stream velocity, jet temperature, and orifice flow coefficient. A method is presented which yields a good approximation of the temperature profile in terms of dimensionless parameters of the flow and geometric conditions

    A Method for Rapid Determination of the Icing Limit of a Body in Terms of the Stream Conditions

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    The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the conditions under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet

    Children’s experiences of domestic violence and abuse: siblings’ accounts of relational coping

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    This article explores how young people see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence, and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The ‘voice’ of children is largely absent from domestic violence literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children’s own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently existing models of children’s social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children’s experiences of domestic violence and abuse, this paper uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people’s use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The paper explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people’s accounts, and disrupts the taken for granted assumption that children’s ‘premature caring’ or ‘parentification’ is (only) pathological in children’s responses to domestic violence. This has implications for understanding young people’s experiences in the present, and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future

    Investigation of Noise Field and Velocity Profiles of an Afterburning Engine

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    Sound pressure levels, frequency spectrum, and jet velocity profiles are presented for an engine-afterburner combination at various values of afterburner fuel - air ratio. At the high fuel-air ratios, severe low-frequency resonance was encountered which represented more than half the total energy in the sound spectrum. At similar thrust conditions, lower sound pressure levels were obtained from a current fighter air craft with a different afterburner configuration. The lower sound pressure levels are attributed to resonance-free afterburner operation and thereby indicate the importance of acoustic considerations in afterburner design