42 research outputs found

    Buserelin alleviates chloride transport defect in human cystic fibrosis nasal epithelial cells.

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    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) chloride (Cl-) channel regulated by protein kinases, phosphatases, divalent cations and by protein-protein interactions. Among protein-protein interactions, we previously showed that Annexin A5 (AnxA5) binds to CFTR and is involved in the channel localization within membranes and in its Cl- channel function. The deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del) is the most common mutation in CF which leads to an altered protein (F508del-CFTR) folding with a nascent protein retained within the ER and is quickly degraded. We previously showed that AnxA5 binds to F508del-CFTR and that its increased expression due to a Gonadoliberin (GnRH) augments Cl- efflux in cells expressing F508del-CFTR. The aim of the present work was to use the GnRH analog buserelin which is already used in medicine. Human nasal epithelial cells from controls and CF patients (F508del/F508del) were treated with buserelin and we show here that the treatment alleviates Cl- channel defects in CF cells. Using proteomics we highlighted some proteins explaining this result. Finally, we propose that buserelin is a potential new pharmaceutical compound that can be used in CF and that bronchus can be targeted since we show here that they express GnRH-R

    Visual adaptation enhances action sound discrimination

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    Prolonged exposure, or adaptation, to a stimulus in one modality can bias, but also enhance, perception of a subsequent stimulus presented within the same modality. However, recent research has also found that adaptation in one modality can bias perception in another modality. Here we show a novel crossmodal adaptation effect, where adaptation to a visual stimulus enhances subsequent auditory perception. We found that when compared to no adaptation, prior adaptation to visual, auditory or audiovisual hand actions enhanced discrimination between two subsequently presented hand action sounds. Discrimination was most enhanced when the visual action ‘matched’ the auditory action. In addition, prior adaptation to a visual, auditory or audiovisual action caused subsequent ambiguous action sounds to be perceived as less like the adaptor. In contrast, these crossmodal action aftereffects were not generated by adaptation to the names of actions. Enhanced crossmodal discrimination and crossmodal perceptual aftereffects may result from separate mechanisms operating in audiovisual action sensitive neurons within perceptual systems. Adaptation induced crossmodal enhancements cannot be explained by post-perceptual responses or decisions. More generally, these results together indicate that adaptation is a ubiquitous mechanism for optimizing perceptual processing of multisensory stimuli

    Aesthetic and incentive salience of cute infant faces : studies of observer sex, oral contraception and menstrual cycle

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    Infant cuteness can influence adult-infant interaction and has been shown to activate reward centres in the brain. In a previous study, we found men and women to be differentially sensitive to small differences in infant facial cuteness, with reproductive hormone status as the potential underlying cause. It is unclear, however, whether reproductive hormone status impacts on the aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces. To address this question, we conducted two interlinked studies. We used static images of the same smiling and neutral-looking infant faces in both a rating task, in which participants had to rate the cuteness of infant faces (aesthetic salience - 'liking'), and a key-press task, in which participants could prolong or shorten viewing time of infant faces by rapid alternating key-presses (incentive salience - 'wanting'). In a first study, we compared the performance of men, women who are taking oral contraceptives, and regularly cycling women. In this study, we found a significant correlation between cuteness ratings within and between groups, which implies that participants had the same concept of cuteness. Cuteness ratings and effort to look at faces was linked regardless of sex and reproductive hormone status, in that cute faces were looked at for longer than less cute faces. A happy facial expression contributed only marginally to the incentive salience of the face. To explore the potential impact of reproductive hormone status in more detail, we followed a subset of regularly cycling women during the menstrual, follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. The aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces did not change across the menstrual cycle. Our findings suggest that reproductive hormone status does not modulate the aesthetic and incentive value of infant faces.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation

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    Contains fulltext : 125374.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access)BACKGROUND: Edoxaban is a direct oral factor Xa inhibitor with proven antithrombotic effects. The long-term efficacy and safety of edoxaban as compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation is not known. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial comparing two once-daily regimens of edoxaban with warfarin in 21,105 patients with moderate-to-high-risk atrial fibrillation (median follow-up, 2.8 years). The primary efficacy end point was stroke or systemic embolism. Each edoxaban regimen was tested for noninferiority to warfarin during the treatment period. The principal safety end point was major bleeding. RESULTS: The annualized rate of the primary end point during treatment was 1.50% with warfarin (median time in the therapeutic range, 68.4%), as compared with 1.18% with high-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 0.79; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.99; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 1.61% with low-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 1.07; 97.5% CI, 0.87 to 1.31; P=0.005 for noninferiority). In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was a trend favoring high-dose edoxaban versus warfarin (hazard ratio, 0.87; 97.5% CI, 0.73 to 1.04; P=0.08) and an unfavorable trend with low-dose edoxaban versus warfarin (hazard ratio, 1.13; 97.5% CI, 0.96 to 1.34; P=0.10). The annualized rate of major bleeding was 3.43% with warfarin versus 2.75% with high-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.91; P<0.001) and 1.61% with low-dose edoxaban (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.55; P<0.001). The corresponding annualized rates of death from cardiovascular causes were 3.17% versus 2.74% (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97; P=0.01), and 2.71% (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.96; P=0.008), and the corresponding rates of the key secondary end point (a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, or death from cardiovascular causes) were 4.43% versus 3.85% (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.96; P=0.005), and 4.23% (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.05; P=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Both once-daily regimens of edoxaban were noninferior to warfarin with respect to the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism and were associated with significantly lower rates of bleeding and death from cardiovascular causes. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo Pharma Development; ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00781391.)

    Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants used in CĂŽte d'Ivoire for treating parasitic diseases

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    Natural products play an important role in the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. In the present study, we assessed the anthelmintic properties of medicinal plants used in Cote d'Ivoire. Ethanolic extracts from 50 medicinal plants were tested in vitro against trematodes (Echinostoma caproni, Schistosoma mansoni) and nematodes (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Heligmosomoides bakeri, Trichuris muris). Active extracts were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and followed up in vivo in mice harbouring adult S. mansoni, E. caproni and T. muris at single oral doses of 400 or 800 mg/kg. All extracts tested were active against at least one helminths species. Ten of the 65 extracts tested (15.4%) in vitro revealed activity against all helminths tested. Of 65 extracts tested in vitro at a concentration of 2 mg/ml, all caused death of schistosomula and 34.4% and 39.1% were lethal against adult S. mansoni and E. caproni 72 h post-incubation, respectively. The highest activity against A. ceylanicum in vitro was observed with Sclerocarya birrea at 2 mg/ml, which resulted in death of adult worms and inhibition of activity of third-stage larvae (L3). Of the extracts, 41.5% completely inhibited movement of H. bakeri L3 at minimal lethal concentration (MLC) values of 20-200 mug/ml 48 h post-incubation, and 15.4% paralysed adult H. bakeri at 200 mug/ml 72 h after incubation. Of the extracts, 19% resulted in death of adult T. muris at MLC values of 10-100 mug/ml. In vivo, none of the extracts tested revealed activity against E. caproni. Olax subscorpioidea achieved total and female worm burden reductions of 60% and 84%, respectively in S. mansoni-infected mice. Combretum mucronatum was the most active extracts in vivo against T. muris with a worm burden reduction of 85.3%. In conclusion, several of the medicinal plants used in Cote d'Ivoire are active against different helminths, hence might play a role in the treatment of helminthiases. Further studies are necessary to isol the active components from these extract

    Representing others' actions: the role of expertise in the aging mind

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    Item does not contain fulltextA large body of evidence suggests that action execution and action observation share a common representational domain. To date, little is known about age-related changes in these action representations that are assumed to support various abilities such as the prediction of observed actions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) how age affects the ability to predict the time course of observed actions; and (b) whether and to what extent sensorimotor expertise attenuates age-related declines in prediction performance. In a first experiment, older adults predicted the time course of familiar everyday actions less precisely than younger adults. In a second experiment, younger and older figure skating experts as well as age-matched novices were asked to predict the time course of figure skating elements and simple movement exercises. Both young age and sensorimotor expertise had a positive influence on prediction performance of figure skating elements. The expertise-related benefit did not show a transfer to movement exercises. Together, the results suggest a specific decline of action representations in the aging mind. However, extensive sensorimotor experience seems to enable experts to represent actions from their domain of expertise more precisely even in older age

    Physiology and pathophysiology of the vasopressin-regulated renal water reabsorption

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    To prevent dehydration, terrestrial animals and humans have developed a sensitive and versatile system to maintain their water homeostasis. In states of hypernatremia or hypovolemia, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary and binds its type-2 receptor in renal principal cells. This triggers an intracellular cAMP signaling cascade, which phosphorylates aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and targets the channel to the apical plasma membrane. Driven by an osmotic gradient, pro-urinary water then passes the membrane through AQP2 and leaves the cell on the basolateral side via AQP3 and AQP4 water channels. When water homeostasis is restored, AVP levels decline, and AQP2 is internalized from the plasma membrane, leaving the plasma membrane watertight again. The action of AVP is counterbalanced by several hormones like prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, dopamine, endothelin-1, acetylcholine, epidermal growth factor, and purines. Moreover, AQP2 is strongly involved in the pathophysiology of disorders characterized by renal concentrating defects, as well as conditions associated with severe water retention. This review focuses on our recent increase in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying AVP-regulated renal water transport in both health and disease

    Twenty-first century brain banking. Processing brains for research: the Columbia University methods

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    Carefully categorized postmortem human brains are crucial for research. The lack of generally accepted methods for processing human postmortem brains for research persists. Thus, brain banking is essential; however, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the teaching mission of the academic institution by routing brains away from residency programs, particularly when the autopsy rate is steadily decreasing. A consensus must be reached whereby a brain can be utilizable for diagnosis, research, and teaching. The best diagnostic categorization possible must be secured and the yield of samples for basic investigation maximized. This report focuses on integrated, novel methods currently applied at the New York Brain Bank, Columbia University, New York, which are designed to reach accurate neuropathological diagnosis, optimize the yield of samples, and process fresh-frozen samples suitable for a wide range of modern investigations. The brains donated for research are processed as soon as possible after death. The prosector must have a good command of the neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and the protocol. One half of each brain is immersed in formalin for performing the thorough neuropathologic evaluation, which is combined with the teaching task. The contralateral half is extensively dissected at the fresh state. The anatomical origin of each sample is recorded using the map of Brodmann for the cortical samples. The samples are frozen at −160°C, barcode labeled, and ready for immediate disbursement once categorized diagnostically. A rigorous organization of freezer space, coupled to an electronic tracking system with its attached software, fosters efficient access for retrieval within minutes of any specific frozen samples in storage. This report describes how this achievement is feasible with emphasis on the actual processing of brains donated for research

    Calcium signalling: dynamics, homeostasis and remodelling

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    Ca2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signal that operates over a wide temporal range to regulate many different cellular processes. An extensive Ca2+-signalling toolkit is used to assemble signalling systems with very different spatial and temporal dynamics. Rapid highly localized Ca2+ spikes regulate fast responses, whereas slower responses are controlled by repetitive global Ca2+ transients or intracellular Ca2+ waves. Ca2+ has a direct role in controlling the expression patterns of its signalling systems that are constantly being remodelled in both health and disease
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