608 research outputs found

    Anthropometry‚Äźbased prediction of body composition in early infancy compared to air‚Äźdisplacement plethysmography

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    Funder: Danone Nutricia ResearchFunder: EU Commission for JPI HDHL program ‚ÄėCall III Biomarkers‚Äô for project: BioFN ‚Äź Biomarkers for Infant Fat Mass Development and Nutrition; Grant(s): 696295Summary: Background: Anthropometry‚Äźbased equations are commonly used to estimate infant body composition. However, existing equations were designed for newborns or adolescents. We aimed to (a) derive new prediction equations in infancy against air‚Äźdisplacement plethysmography (ADP‚ÄźPEA Pod) as the criterion, (b) validate the newly developed equations in an independent infant cohort and (c) compare them with published equations (Slaughter‚Äź1988, Aris‚Äź2013, Catalano‚Äź1995). Methods: Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), UK, had anthropometry data at 6 weeks (N = 55) and 3 months (N = 64), including skinfold thicknesses (SFT) at four sites (triceps, subscapular, quadriceps and flank) and ADP‚Äźderived total body fat mass (FM) and fat‚Äźfree mass (FFM). Prediction equations for FM and FFM were developed in CBGS using linear regression models and were validated in Sophia Pluto cohort, the Netherlands, (N = 571 and N = 447 aged 3 and 6 months, respectively) using Bland‚ÄďAltman analyses to assess bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA). Results: CBGS equations consisted of sex, age, weight, length and SFT from three sites and explained 65% of the variance in FM and 79% in FFM. In Sophia Pluto, these equations showed smaller mean bias than the three published equations in estimating FM: mean bias (LOA) 0.008 (‚ąí0.489, 0.505) kg at 3 months and 0.084 (‚ąí0.545, 0.713) kg at 6 months. Mean bias in estimating FFM was 0.099 (‚ąí0.394, 0.592) kg at 3 months and ‚ąí0.021 (‚ąí0.663, 0.621) kg at 6 months. Conclusions: CBGS prediction equations for infant FM and FFM showed better validity in an independent cohort at ages 3 and 6 months than existing equations

    Mendelian randomization study of maternal influences on birthweight and future cardiometabolic risk in the HUNT cohort

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    There is a robust observational relationship between lower birthweight and higher risk of cardiometabolic disease in later life. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis posits that adverse environmental factors in utero increase future risk of cardiometabolic disease. Here, we explore if a genetic risk score (GRS) of maternal SNPs associated with offspring birthweight is also associated with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors, after controlling for offspring GRS, in up to 26,057 mother-offspring pairs (and 19,792 father-offspring pairs) from the Nord-Tr√łndelag Health (HUNT) Study. We find little evidence for a maternal (or paternal) genetic effect of birthweight associated variants on offspring cardiometabolic risk factors after adjusting for offspring GRS. In contrast, offspring GRS is strongly related to many cardiometabolic risk factors, even after conditioning on maternal GRS. Our results suggest that the maternal intrauterine environment, as proxied by maternal SNPs that influence offspring birthweight, is unlikely to be a major determinant of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in population based samples of individuals.This article is available to RD&E staff via NHS OpenAthens. Click on the Publisher URL, and log in with NHS OpenAthens if prompted.AA/18/7/34219/BHF_/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom 104150/Z/14/Z/WT_/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom MC_UU_00011/1/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom MC_UU_00011/6/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom MC_UU_12013/4/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdo

    The greek famine of 1941-1942 and its impact

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    The Greek Famine of 1941-1942 provides a natural experiment to test the fetal origins hypothesis. This hypothesis states that exposure to detrimental conditions during the fetal stage leads to worse health and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. This chapter first describes the Greek famine's causes. It then reviews the impact of the Greek famine on the education and labor market outcomes of the individuals exposed to the famine in utero or in early childhood. Corroborating Barker's hypothesis, the evidence indicates that the Greek famine significantly reduced educational attainment for those who experienced it before their third year of life. The famine also reduced labor market success for those with famine exposure in their early childhood. This finding is partly driven by a shift towards rural birthplaces in the famine years. The sum of the findings underscores the importance of averting early childhood malnourishment.</p


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    Globally, the twenty-first century will witness rapid population ageing. Already in 2050, one out of five persons in the world, and one out of three in Europe, is expected to be 60 or over (UN 2015). Moreover, we have entered into a new stage of population ageing in terms of its causes, which have altered its consequences. In the first stage, lasting until the middle of the twentieth century in developed countries, population ageing was entirely due to the decline in fertility, with Sweden being commonly used as an example (Coale 1957; Bengtsson and Scott 2010; Lee and Zhou 2017). During this stage, the increase in life expectancy was primarily driven by declines in infant and child mortality. It worked in the opposite direction to the fertility decline, making the population younger since it added more years before, than after retirement (Coale 1957; Lee 1994). In the second stage of population ageing, which is the current situation, population ageing is primarily driven by the increase in life expectancy, which is now due to declining old-age mortality. As a result, more years are added after retirement than in working ages (Lee 1994). Could immigration or an upswing in fertility stop population ageing? The short answer is most likely not. The effect of migration on population aging is generally regarded as minor (Murphy 2017), and since population ageing is a global phenomenon, it will be of no general help anyway. A rapid increase in fertility is improbable and, in any case, an increase would take some 25 years before adding to the labor force. Instead, attention has been focused on how to adapt our social systems to the increasing number of elderly per worker ‚Äď more so since the increase in the elderly-per-worker ratio came in parallel with a rise in per capita costs for the institutional care, home care, and general health care for the elderly

    Neoplasms of the genitourinary system

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    Nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor (WT) is the most common renal neoplasm in children accounting for 90 % of pediatric renal tumors (Pastore et al. 2006). It is a tumor with a good prognosis and with well-established treatment strategies. Other rare malignant renal tumors, such as clear cell sarcoma and rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, have a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in older children, while mesoblastic nephroma is the most frequent renal tumor in the neonate. Hematological malignancies, the most frequent neoplasms in children, may also involve the kidney, most often as part of a multi-organ involvement. Renal infections and malformations are much more common in children than renal tumors and may show a pseudotumoral pattern mimicking a renal tumor. In all cases, close collaboration among radiologists, pediatricians, and pathologists is essential so as to avoid diagnostic pitfalls due to atypical presentations

    Acting on non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income tropical countries

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    The classical portrayal of poor health in tropical countries is one of infections and parasites, contrasting with wealthy western countries, where unhealthy diet and behaviours cause non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like heart disease and cancer. Using international mortality data, we show that most NCDs cause more deaths at any age in low- and middle-income tropical countries than in high-income western countries. Causes of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries include poor nutrition and living environment, infections, insufficient regulation of tobacco and alcohol, and under-resourced and inaccessible healthcare. We identify a comprehensive set of actions across health, social, economic and environmental sectors that can confront NCDs in low- and middle-income tropical countries and reduce global health inequalities

    A cross-sectional survey investigating women's information sources, behaviour, expectations, knowledge and level of satisfaction on advice received about diet and supplements before and during pregnancy

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    Background The reported long-term effects of poor maternal nutrition and uptake of recommended supplements before and during pregnancy was the impetus behind this study. Our objectives were to investigate and understand women‚Äôs expectations, knowledge, behaviour and information sources used regarding the use of nutrition and vitamin supplements before and during pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was undertaken. A purposive sampling technique was used. Women attending the antenatal clinic at Croydon University Hospital during 2015 were invited to take part in the study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, paired sample T-tests and Chi-squared tests, with the level of significance set at 5% (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05). Results A total of 133 pregnant women completed the survey. Analysis of the results showed that women are currently using electronic resources (33%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ42) rather than healthcare professionals (19%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ25) as an information source before pregnancy. Women who sourced information through the internet were significantly more likely to take folic acid (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.006) and vitamin D (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.004) before pregnancy. Women preferred to receive information from the antenatal clinic (62%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ83), internet (46%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ61) and from mobile applications (27%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ36). Although women believed they had sufficient knowledge (60%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ80) and had received adequate advice (53%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ70) concerning the correct supplements to take, this was not demonstrated in their behaviour, with only a small number of women (37%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ49) taking a folic acid supplement before pregnancy. Women mistakenly perceived the timing of supplement advice as correct, with only a small number of women (18%, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ23) considering the advice on supplements as too late. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, this study demonstrated that women did not receive timely and/or accurate advice to enable them to take the recommended supplements at the optimal time. Women had the misconception that they understood the correct use of pregnancy supplements. This misunderstanding may be prevented by providing women intending to become pregnant with a structured, approved electronic source of information that improves their supplements uptake

    Obesity and obesogenic growth are both highly heritable and modified by diet in a nonhuman primate model, the African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

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    OBJECTIVE: In humans, the ontogeny of obesity throughout the life course and the genetics underlying it has been historically difficult to study. We compared, in a non-human primate model, the lifelong growth trajectories of obese and non-obese adults to assess the heritability of and map potential genomic regions implicated in growth and obesity. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 905 African green monkeys, or vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) (472 females, 433 males) from a pedigreed captive colony. METHODS: We measured fasted body weight (BW), crown-to-rump length (CRL), body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) from 2000 to 2015. We used a longitudinal clustering algorithm to detect obesogenic growth, and logistic growth curves implemented in nonlinear mixed effects models to estimate three growth parameters. We used maximum likelihood variance decomposition methods to estimate the genetic contributions to obesity-related traits and growth parameters, including a test for the effects of a calorie-restricted dietary intervention. We used multipoint linkage analysis to map implicated genomic regions. RESULTS: All measurements were significantly influenced by sex, and with the exception of WC, also influenced by maternal and post-natal diet. Chronic obesity outcomes were significantly associated with a pattern of extended growth duration with slow growth rates for BW. After accounting for environmental influences, all measurements were found to have a significant genetic component to variability. Linkage analysis revealed several regions suggested to be linked to obesity-related traits that are also implicated in human obesity and metabolic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: As in humans, growth patterns in vervets have a significant impact on adult obesity and are largely under genetic control with some evidence for maternal and dietary programming. These results largely mirror findings from human research, but reflect shorter developmental periods, suggesting that the vervet offers a strong genetic model for elucidating the ontogeny of human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Apr; 42(4):765-774

    Burden of disease attributable to suboptimal diet, metabolic risks, and low physical activity in Ethiopia and comparison with Eastern sub-Saharan African countries, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

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    Background: Twelve of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are related to malnutrition (both under- and overnutrition), other behavioral, and metabolic risk factors. However, comparative evidence on the impact of behavioral and metabolic risk factors on disease burden is limited in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ethiopia. Using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we assessed mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to child and maternal undernutrition (CMU), dietary risks, metabolic risks and low physical activity for Ethiopia. The results were compared with 14 other Eastern SSA countries. Methods: Databases from GBD 2015, that consist of data from 1990 to 2015, were used. A comparative risk assessment approach was utilized to estimate the burden of disease attributable to CMU, dietary risks, metabolic risks and low physical activity. Exposure levels of the risk factors were estimated using spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) and Bayesian meta-regression models. Results: In 2015, there were 58,783 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 43,653-76,020] or 8.9% [95% UI: 6.1-12.5] estimated all-cause deaths attributable to CMU, 66,269 [95% UI: 39,367-106,512] or 9.7% [95% UI: 7.4-12.3] to dietary risks, 105,057 [95% UI: 66,167-157,071] or 15.4% [95% UI: 12.8-17.6] to metabolic risks and 5808 [95% UI: 3449-9359] or 0.9% [95% UI: 0.6-1.1]to low physical activity in Ethiopia. While the age-adjusted proportion of all-cause mortality attributable to CMU decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015, it increased from 10.8% [95% UI: 8.8-13.3] to 14.5% [95% UI: 11.7-18.0] for dietary risks and from 17.0% [95% UI: 15.4-18.7] to 24.2% [95% UI: 22.2-26.1] for metabolic risks. In 2015, Ethiopia ranked among the top four countries (of 15 Eastern SSA countries) in terms of mortality and DALYs based on the age-standardized proportion of disease attributable to dietary risks and metabolic risks. Conclusions: In Ethiopia, while there was a decline in mortality and DALYs attributable to CMU over the last two and half decades, the burden attributable to dietary and metabolic risks have increased during the same period. Lifestyle and metabolic risks of NCDs require more attention by the primary health care system of in the country
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