305 research outputs found

    Microfluidic systems for the analysis of the viscoelastic fluid flow phenomena in porous media

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    In this study, two microfluidic devices are proposed as simplified 1-D microfluidic analogues of a porous medium. The objectives are twofold: firstly to assess the usefulness of the microchannels to mimic the porous medium in a controlled and simplified manner, and secondly to obtain a better insight about the flow characteristics of viscoelastic fluids flowing through a packed bed. For these purposes, flow visualizations and pressure drop measurements are conducted with Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. The 1-D microfluidic analogues of porous medium consisted of microchannels with a sequence of contractions/ expansions disposed in symmetric and asymmetric arrangements. The real porous medium is in reality, a complex combination of the two arrangements of particles simulated with the microchannels, which can be considered as limiting ideal configurations. The results show that both configurations are able to mimic well the pressure drop variation with flow rate for Newtonian fluids. However, due to the intrinsic differences in the deformation rate profiles associated with each microgeometry, the symmetric configuration is more suitable for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids at low De values, while the asymmetric configuration provides better results at high De values. In this way, both microgeometries seem to be complementary and could be interesting tools to obtain a better insight about the flow of viscoelastic fluids through a porous medium. Such model systems could be very interesting to use in polymer-flood processes for enhanced oil recovery, for instance, as a tool for selecting the most suitable viscoelastic fluid to be used in a specific formation. The selection of the fluid properties of a detergent for cleaning oil contaminated soil, sand, and in general, any porous material, is another possible application

    Microdevices for extensional rheometry of low viscosity elastic liquids : a review

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    Extensional flows and the underlying stability/instability mechanisms are of extreme relevance to the efficient operation of inkjet printing, coating processes and drug delivery systems, as well as for the generation of micro droplets. The development of an extensional rheometer to characterize the extensional properties of low viscosity fluids has therefore stimulated great interest of researchers, particularly in the last decade. Microfluidics has proven to be an extraordinary working platform and different configurations of potential extensional microrheometers have been proposed. In this review, we present an overview of several successful designs, together with a critical assessment of their capabilities and limitations

    Measurement of the tt¯tt¯ production cross section in pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A measurement of four-top-quark production using proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb−1 is presented. Events are selected if they contain a single lepton (electron or muon) or an opposite-sign lepton pair, in association with multiple jets. The events are categorised according to the number of jets and how likely these are to contain b-hadrons. A multivariate technique is then used to discriminate between signal and background events. The measured four-top-quark production cross section is found to be 26+17−15 fb, with a corresponding observed (expected) significance of 1.9 (1.0) standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. The result is combined with the previous measurement performed by the ATLAS Collaboration in the multilepton final state. The combined four-top-quark production cross section is measured to be 24+7−6 fb, with a corresponding observed (expected) signal significance of 4.7 (2.6) standard deviations over the background-only predictions. It is consistent within 2.0 standard deviations with the Standard Model expectation of 12.0 ± 2.4 fb

    Measurements of Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks from vector boson fusion production with the ATLAS experiment at √=13TeV