280 research outputs found

    Solar neutrino measurements using the full data period of Super-Kamiokande-IV

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    International audienceAn analysis of solar neutrino data from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande~(SK-IV) from October 2008 to May 2018 is performed and the results are presented. The observation time of the data set of SK-IV corresponds to 29702970~days and the total live time for all four phases is 58055805~days. For more precise solar neutrino measurements, several improvements are applied in this analysis: lowering the data acquisition threshold in May 2015, further reduction of the spallation background using neutron clustering events, precise energy reconstruction considering the time variation of the PMT gain. The observed number of solar neutrino events in 3.493.49--19.4919.49~MeV electron kinetic energy region during SK-IV is 65,443388+390(stat.)±925(syst.)65,443^{+390}_{-388}\,(\mathrm{stat.})\pm 925\,(\mathrm{syst.}) events. Corresponding 8B\mathrm{^{8}B} solar neutrino flux is (2.314±0.014(stat.)±0.040(syst.))×106 cm2s1(2.314 \pm 0.014\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.040 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}, assuming a pure electron-neutrino flavor component without neutrino oscillations. The flux combined with all SK phases up to SK-IV is (2.336±0.011(stat.)±0.043(syst.))×106 cm2s1(2.336 \pm 0.011\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.043 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}. Based on the neutrino oscillation analysis from all solar experiments, including the SK 58055805~days data set, the best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters are sin2θ12,solar=0.306±0.013\rm{sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,solar}} = 0.306 \pm 0.013 and Δm21,solar2=(6.100.81+0.95)×105 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{solar}} = (6.10^{+ 0.95}_{-0.81}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}, with a deviation of about 1.5σ\sigma from the Δm212\Delta m^{2}_{21} parameter obtained by KamLAND. The best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters obtained from all solar experiments and KamLAND are sin2θ12,global=0.307±0.012\sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,\mathrm{global}} = 0.307 \pm 0.012 and Δm21,global2=(7.500.18+0.19)×105 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{global}} = (7.50^{+ 0.19}_{-0.18}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}

    Solar neutrino measurements using the full data period of Super-Kamiokande-IV

    No full text
    International audienceAn analysis of solar neutrino data from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande~(SK-IV) from October 2008 to May 2018 is performed and the results are presented. The observation time of the data set of SK-IV corresponds to 29702970~days and the total live time for all four phases is 58055805~days. For more precise solar neutrino measurements, several improvements are applied in this analysis: lowering the data acquisition threshold in May 2015, further reduction of the spallation background using neutron clustering events, precise energy reconstruction considering the time variation of the PMT gain. The observed number of solar neutrino events in 3.493.49--19.4919.49~MeV electron kinetic energy region during SK-IV is 65,443388+390(stat.)±925(syst.)65,443^{+390}_{-388}\,(\mathrm{stat.})\pm 925\,(\mathrm{syst.}) events. Corresponding 8B\mathrm{^{8}B} solar neutrino flux is (2.314±0.014(stat.)±0.040(syst.))×106 cm2s1(2.314 \pm 0.014\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.040 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}, assuming a pure electron-neutrino flavor component without neutrino oscillations. The flux combined with all SK phases up to SK-IV is (2.336±0.011(stat.)±0.043(syst.))×106 cm2s1(2.336 \pm 0.011\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.043 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}. Based on the neutrino oscillation analysis from all solar experiments, including the SK 58055805~days data set, the best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters are sin2θ12,solar=0.306±0.013\rm{sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,solar}} = 0.306 \pm 0.013 and Δm21,solar2=(6.100.81+0.95)×105 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{solar}} = (6.10^{+ 0.95}_{-0.81}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}, with a deviation of about 1.5σ\sigma from the Δm212\Delta m^{2}_{21} parameter obtained by KamLAND. The best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters obtained from all solar experiments and KamLAND are sin2θ12,global=0.307±0.012\sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,\mathrm{global}} = 0.307 \pm 0.012 and Δm21,global2=(7.500.18+0.19)×105 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{global}} = (7.50^{+ 0.19}_{-0.18}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}

    Search for Periodic Time Variations of the Solar 8^8B Neutrino Flux Between 1996 and 2018 in Super-Kamiokande

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    International audienceWe report a search for time variations of the solar 8^8B neutrino flux using 5,804 live days of Super-Kamiokande data collected between May 31, 1996, and May 30, 2018. Super-Kamiokande measured the precise time of each solar neutrino interaction over 22 calendar years to search for solar neutrino flux modulations with unprecedented precision. Periodic modulations are searched for in a data set comprised of five-day interval solar neutrino flux measurements with a maximum likelihood method. We also applied the Lomb-Scargle method to this data set to compare it with previous reports. The only significant modulation found is due to the elliptic orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The observed modulation is consistent with astronomical data: we measured an eccentricity of (1.53±\pm0.35) %, and a perihelion shift is (-1.5±\pm13.5) days

    Engineered immunogens to elicit antibodies against conserved coronavirus epitopes

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    Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 primarily target the receptor binding domain of the spike protein, which continually mutates to escape acquired immunity. Other regions in the spike S2 subunit, such as the stem helix and the segment encompassing residues 815-823 adjacent to the fusion peptide, are highly conserved across sarbecoviruses and are recognized by broadly reactive antibodies, providing hope that vaccines targeting these epitopes could offer protection against both current and emergent viruses. Here we employ computational modeling to design scaffolded immunogens that display the spike 815-823 peptide and the stem helix epitopes without the distracting and immunodominant receptor binding domain. These engineered proteins bind with high affinity and specificity to the mature and germline versions of previously identified broadly protective human antibodies. Epitope scaffolds interact with both sera and isolated monoclonal antibodies with broadly reactivity from individuals with pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity. When used as immunogens, epitope scaffolds elicit sera with broad betacoronavirus reactivity and protect as “boosts” against live virus challenge in mice, illustrating their potential as components of a future pancoronavirus vaccine

    Measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic cross section using atmospheric neutrinos in the SK-Gd experiment

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    International audienceWe report the first measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic (NCQE) cross section in the gadolinium-loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector. In June 2020, SK began a new experimental phase, named SK-Gd, by loading 0.011% by mass of gadolinium into the ultrapure water of the SK detector. The introduction of gadolinium to ultrapure water has the effect of improving the neutron-tagging efficiency. Using a 552.2 day data set from August 2020 to June 2022, we measure the NCQE cross section to be 0.74 ±\pm 0.22(stat.) 0.15+0.85^{+0.85}_{-0.15} (syst.) ×\times 1038^{-38} cm2^{2}/oxygen in the energy range from 160 MeV to 10 GeV, which is consistent with the atmospheric neutrino-flux-averaged theoretical NCQE cross section and the measurement in the SK pure-water phase within the uncertainties. Furthermore, we compare the models of the nucleon-nucleus interactions in water and find that the Binary Cascade model and the Liege Intranuclear Cascade model provide a somewhat better fit to the observed data than the Bertini Cascade model. Since the atmospheric neutrino-oxygen NCQE reactions are one of the main backgrounds in the search for diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB), these new results will contribute to future studies - and the potential discovery - of the DSNB in SK

    Search for astrophysical electron antineutrinos in Super-Kamiokande with 0.01wt% gadolinium-loaded water

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    We report the first search result for the flux of astrophysical electron antineutrinos for energies O(10) MeV in the gadolinium-loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector. In June 2020, gadolinium was introduced to the ultra-pure water of the SK detector in order to detect neutrons more efficiently. In this new experimental phase, SK-Gd, we can search for electron antineutrinos via inverse beta decay with efficient background rejection and higher signal efficiency thanks to the high efficiency of the neutron tagging technique. In this paper, we report the result for the initial stage of SK-Gd with a 22.5×55222.5\times552 ktonday\rm kton\cdot day exposure at 0.01% Gd mass concentration. No significant excess over the expected background in the observed events is found for the neutrino energies below 31.3 MeV. Thus, the flux upper limits are placed at the 90% confidence level. The limits and sensitivities are already comparable with the previous SK result with pure-water (22.5×2970ktonday22.5 \times 2970 \rm kton\cdot day) owing to the enhanced neutron tagging

    Measurement of the cosmogenic neutron yield in Super-Kamiokande with gadolinium loaded water

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    International audienceCosmic-ray muons that enter the Super-Kamiokande detector cause hadronic showers due to spallation in water, producing neutrons and radioactive isotopes. Those are a major background source for studies of MeV-scale neutrinos and searches for rare events. Since 2020, gadolinium was introduced in the ultra-pure water in the Super-Kamiokande detector to improve the detection efficiency of neutrons. In this study, the cosmogenic neutron yield was measured using data acquired during the period after the gadolinium loading. The yield was found to be (2.76±0.02(stat.)±0.19(syst.))×104μ1g1cm2(2.76 \pm 0.02\,\mathrm{(stat.) \pm 0.19\,\mathrm{(syst.)}}) \times 10^{-4}\,\mu^{-1} \mathrm{g^{-1} cm^{2}} at 259 GeV of average muon energy at the Super-Kamiokande detector

    Search for Periodic Time Variations of the Solar 8^8B Neutrino Flux Between 1996 and 2018 in Super-Kamiokande

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    International audienceWe report a search for time variations of the solar 8^8B neutrino flux using 5,804 live days of Super-Kamiokande data collected between May 31, 1996, and May 30, 2018. Super-Kamiokande measured the precise time of each solar neutrino interaction over 22 calendar years to search for solar neutrino flux modulations with unprecedented precision. Periodic modulations are searched for in a data set comprised of five-day interval solar neutrino flux measurements with a maximum likelihood method. We also applied the Lomb-Scargle method to this data set to compare it with previous reports. The only significant modulation found is due to the elliptic orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The observed modulation is consistent with astronomical data: we measured an eccentricity of (1.53±\pm0.35) %, and a perihelion shift is (-1.5±\pm13.5) days

    Atmospheric neutrino oscillation analysis with neutron tagging and an expanded fiducial volume in Super-Kamiokande I-V

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    International audienceWe present a measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with the Super-Kamiokande detector using atmospheric neutrinos from the complete pure-water SK I-V (April 1996-July 2020) data set, including events from an expanded fiducial volume. The data set corresponds to 6511.3 live days and an exposure of 484.2 kiloton-years. Measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters Δm322\Delta m^2_{32}, sin2θ23\sin^2\theta_{23}, sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13}, δCP\delta_{CP}, and the preference for the neutrino mass ordering are presented with atmospheric neutrino data alone, and with constraints on sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13} from reactor neutrino experiments. Our analysis including constraints on sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13} favors the normal mass ordering at the 92.3% level

    Atmospheric neutrino oscillation analysis with neutron tagging and an expanded fiducial volume in Super-Kamiokande I-V

    No full text
    International audienceWe present a measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with the Super-Kamiokande detector using atmospheric neutrinos from the complete pure-water SK I-V (April 1996-July 2020) data set, including events from an expanded fiducial volume. The data set corresponds to 6511.3 live days and an exposure of 484.2 kiloton-years. Measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters Δm322\Delta m^2_{32}, sin2θ23\sin^2\theta_{23}, sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13}, δCP\delta_{CP}, and the preference for the neutrino mass ordering are presented with atmospheric neutrino data alone, and with constraints on sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13} from reactor neutrino experiments. Our analysis including constraints on sin2θ13\sin^2 \theta_{13} favors the normal mass ordering at the 92.3% level
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