528 research outputs found

    Functional specialization within rostral prefrontal cortex (Area 10): a meta-analysis

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    One of the least well understood regions of the human brain is rostral prefrontal cortex, approximating Brodmann's area 10. Here, we investigate the possibility that there are functional subdivisions within this region by conducting a meta-analysis of 104 functional neuroimaging studies (using positron emission tomography/functional magnetic resonance imaging). Studies involving working memory and episodic memory retrieval were disproportionately associated with lateral activations, whereas studies involving mentalizing (i.e., attending to one's own emotions and mental states or those of other agents) were disproportionately associated with medial activations. Functional variation was also observed along a rostral-caudal axis, with studies involving mentalizing yielding relatively caudal activations and studies involving multiple-task coordination yielding relatively rostral activations. A classification algorithm was trained to predict the task, given the coordinates of each activation peak. Performance was well above chance levels (74% for the three most common tasks; 45% across all eight tasks investigated) and generalized to data not included in the training set. These results point to considerable functional segregation within rostral prefrontal cortex

    A Geometry of the Generations

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    We propose a geometric theory of flavor based on the discrete group (S3)3(S_3)^3, in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The group treats three objects symmetrically, while making fundamental distinctions between the generations. The top quark is the only heavy quark in the symmetry limit, and the first and second generation squarks are degenerate. The hierarchical nature of Yukawa matrices is a consequence of a sequential breaking of (S3)3(S_3)^3.Comment: 10 pages, 1 EPS figure as uuencoded tar-compressed file, uses psfig.st

    Maximal Neutrino Mixing from a Minimal Flavor Symmetry

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    We study a number of models, based on a non-Abelian discrete group, that successfully reproduce the simple and predictive Yukawa textures usually associated with U(2) theories of flavor. These models allow for solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems that do not require altering successful predictions for the charged fermions or introducing sterile neutrinos. Although Yukawa matrices are hierarchical in the models we consider, the mixing between second- and third-generation neutrinos is naturally large. We first present a quantitative analysis of a minimal model proposed in earlier work, consisting of a global fit to fermion masses and mixing angles, including the most important renormalization group effects. We then propose two new variant models: The first reproduces all important features of the SU(5)xU(2) unified theory with neither SU(5) nor U(2). The second demonstrates that discrete subgroups of SU(2) can be used in constructing viable supersymmetric theories of flavor without scalar universality even though SU(2) by itself cannot.Comment: 34 pages LaTeX, 1 eps figure, minor revisions and references adde

    Standard Model baryogenesis through four-fermion operators in braneworlds

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    We study a new baryogenesis scenario in a class of braneworld models with low fundamental scale, which typically have difficulty with baryogenesis. The scenario is characterized by its minimal nature: the field content is that of the Standard Model and all interactions consistent with the gauge symmetry are admitted. Baryon number is violated via a dimension-6 proton decay operator, suppressed today by the mechanism of quark-lepton separation in extra dimensions; we assume that this operator was unsuppressed in the early Universe due to a time-dependent quark-lepton separation. The source of CP violation is the CKM matrix, in combination with the dimension-6 operators. We find that almost independently of cosmology, sufficient baryogenesis is nearly impossible in such a scenario if the fundamental scale is above 100 TeV, as required by an unsuppressed neutron-antineutron oscillation operator. The only exception producing sufficient baryon asymmetry is a scenario involving out-of-equilibrium c quarks interacting with equilibrium b quarks.Comment: 39 pages, 5 figures v2: typos, presentational changes, references and acknowledgments adde

    Specific modulation of the root immune system by a community of commensal bacteria

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    Plants have an innate immune system to fight off potential invaders that is based on the perception of nonself or modified-self molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are evolutionarily conserved microbial molecules whose extracellular detection by specific cell surface receptors initiates an array of biochemical responses collectively known as MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Well-characterized MAMPs include chitin, peptidoglycan, and flg22, a 22-amino acid epitope found in the major building block of the bacterial flagellum, FliC. The importance of MAMP detection by the plant immune system is underscored by the large diversity of strategies used by pathogens to interfere with MTI and that failure to do so is often associated with loss of virulence. Yet, whether or how MTI functions beyond pathogenic interactions is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that a community of root commensal bacteria modulates a specific and evolutionarily conserved sector of the Arabidopsis immune system. We identify a set of robust, taxonomically diverse MTI suppressor strains that are efficient root colonizers and, notably, can enhance the colonization capacity of other tested commensal bacteria. We highlight the importance of extracellular strategies for MTI suppression by showing that the type 2, not the type 3, secretion system is required for the immunomodulatory activity of one robust MTI suppressor. Our findings reveal that root colonization by commensals is controlled by MTI, which, in turn, can be selectively modulated by specific members of a representative bacterial root microbiota

    An Integrated TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource to Drive High-Quality Survival Outcome Analytics

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    For a decade, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program collected clinicopathologic annotation data along with multi-platform molecular profiles of more than 11,000 human tumors across 33 different cancer types. TCGA clinical data contain key features representing the democratized nature of the data collection process. To ensure proper use of this large clinical dataset associated with genomic features, we developed a standardized dataset named the TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource (TCGA-CDR), which includes four major clinical outcome endpoints. In addition to detailing major challenges and statistical limitations encountered during the effort of integrating the acquired clinical data, we present a summary that includes endpoint usage recommendations for each cancer type. These TCGA-CDR findings appear to be consistent with cancer genomics studies independent of the TCGA effort and provide opportunities for investigating cancer biology using clinical correlates at an unprecedented scale. Analysis of clinicopathologic annotations for over 11,000 cancer patients in the TCGA program leads to the generation of TCGA Clinical Data Resource, which provides recommendations of clinical outcome endpoint usage for 33 cancer types

    Search for displaced vertices arising from decays of new heavy particles in 7 TeV pp collisions at ATLAS