63 research outputs found

    Examining national and district-level trends in neonatal health in Peru through an equity lens:A success story driven by political will and societal advocacy

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    Abstract Background Peru has impressively reduced its neonatal mortality rate (NMR). We aimed, for the period 2000–2013, to: (a) describe national and district NMR variations over time; (b) assess NMR trends by wealth quintile and place of residence; (c) describe evolution of mortality causes; (d) assess completeness of registered mortality; (e) assess coverage and equity of NMR-related interventions; and (f) explore underlying driving factors. Methods We compared national NMR time trends from different sources. To describe NMR trends by wealth quintiles, place of residence and districts, we pooled data on births and deaths by calendar year for neonates born to women interviewed in multiple surveys. We disaggregated coverage of NMR-related interventions by wealth quintiles and place of residence. To identify success factors, we ran regression analyses and combined desk reviews with qualitative interviews and group discussions. Results NMR fell by 51 % from 2000 to 2013, second only to Brazil in Latin America. Reduction was higher in rural and poorest segments (52 and 58 %). District NMR change varied by source. Regarding cause-specific NMRs, prematurity decreased from 7.0 to 3.2 per 1,000 live births, intra-partum related events from 2.9 to 1.2, congenital abnormalities from 2.4 to 1.8, sepsis from 1.9 to 0.8, pneumonia from 0.9 to 0.4, and other conditions from 1.2 to 0.7. Under-registration of neonatal deaths decreased recently, more in districts with higher development index and lower rural population. Coverage of family planning, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance increased more in rural areas and in the poorest quintile. Regressions did not show consistent associations between mortality and predictors. During the study period social determinants improved substantially, and dramatic out-of-health-sector and health-sector changes occurred. Rural areas and the poorest quintile experienced greater NMR reduction. This progress was driven, within a context of economic growth and poverty reduction, by a combination of strong societal advocacy and political will, which translated into pro-poor implementation of evidence-based interventions with a rights-based approach. Conclusions Although progress in Peru for reducing NMR has been remarkable, future challenges include closing remaining gaps for urban and rural populations and improving newborn health with qualified staff and intermediate- and intensive-level health facilities

    All-sky search for long-duration gravitational wave transients with initial LIGO

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    We present the results of a search for long-duration gravitational wave transients in two sets of data collected by the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston detectors between November 5, 2005 and September 30, 2007, and July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010, with a total observational time of 283.0 days and 132.9 days, respectively. The search targets gravitational wave transients of duration 10-500 s in a frequency band of 40-1000 Hz, with minimal assumptions about the signal waveform, polarization, source direction, or time of occurrence. All candidate triggers were consistent with the expected background; as a result we set 90% confidence upper limits on the rate of long-duration gravitational wave transients for different types of gravitational wave signals. For signals from black hole accretion disk instabilities, we set upper limits on the source rate density between 3.4×10-5 and 9.4×10-4 Mpc-3 yr-1 at 90% confidence. These are the first results from an all-sky search for unmodeled long-duration transient gravitational waves. © 2016 American Physical Society

    Remoção de fármacos e desreguladores endócrinos em estações de tratamento de esgoto: revisão da literatura

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