890 research outputs found

    Non-thyroidal illness syndrome in chronic diseases: role of irisin as modulator of antioxidants

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    OBJECTIVE: Non-thyroidal-illness syndrome (NTIS) refers to condition found in chronic diseases that is an adaptive mechanism. However, oxidative stress is related to NTIS in a vicious circle, due to deiodinases alteration and negative effects of low T3 on antioxidant levels or activity. Muscle is one of the main targets of thyroid hormones and it can secrete a myokine named irisin, which is able to induce the browning of white adipose tissue, energy expenditure and protect against insulin resistance. Inconclusive data have been reported about irisin role in chronic diseases. Moreover, no correlation with antioxidants has been investigated. Therefore, we performed a case-control study with the primary endpoint to evaluate irisin levels in two models of NTIS, such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) during haemodialytic treatment. The secondary endpoint was the correlation with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) to establish a possible role of irisin in the modulation of antioxidant systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three groups of subjects were enrolled. Group A included CHF patients (n=18; aged 70.22 ± 2.78 ys; BMI ± 27.75 ± 1.28 kg/m2); Group B included CKD patients (n=29; aged 67.03 ± 2.64; BMI 24.53 ± 1.01); finally, 11 normal subjects (Group C) have been enrolled as controls. Irisin has been evaluated by ELISA method and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) by spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: Irisin was significantly higher in Group B vs. A and C groups (Mean ± SEM: 20.18 ± 0.61 ng/ml vs. 2.77 ± 0.77 and 13.06 ± 0.56, respectively; p<0.05); a significant correlation between irisin and TAC was observed in group B. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data suggest a possible role of irisin in the modulation of antioxidants in two chronic syndromes with low T3 (i.e., CHF and CKD) with differential pattern in these two models studied. Further insights are needed to confirm this pilot study, which could be the basis for a longitudinal investigation, to assess a prognostic role of irisin with possible therapeutic implications

    Age of onset of cerebral venous thrombosis: the BEAST study

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    Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke in young adults. We aimed to determine the impact of age, gender and risk factors (including sex-specific) on CVT onset. Methods: We used data from the BEAST (Biorepository to Establish the Aetiology of Sinovenous Thrombosis), a multicentre multinational prospective observational study on CVT. Composite factors analysis (CFA) was performed to determine the impact on the age of CVT onset in males and females. Results: A total of 1309 CVT patients (75.3% females) aged â©Ÿ18 years were recruited. The overall median (IQR-interquartile range) age for males and females was 46 (35–58) years and 37 (28–47) years (p < 0.001), respectively. However, the presence of antibiotic-requiring sepsis (p = 0.03, 95% CI 27–47 years) among males and gender-specific risk factors like pregnancy (p < 0.001, 95% CI 29–34 years), puerperium (p < 0.001, 95% CI 26–34 years) and oral contraceptive use (p < 0.001, 95% CI 33–36 years) were significantly associated with earlier onset of CVT among females. CFA demonstrated a significantly earlier onset of CVT in females, ~12 years younger, in those with multiple (â©Ÿ1) compared to ‘0’ risk factors (p < 0.001, 95% CI 32–35 years). Conclusions: Women suffer CVT 9 years earlier in comparison to men. Female patients with multiple (â©Ÿ1) risk factors suffer CVT ~12 years earlier compared to those with no identifiable risk factors

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as predictor of cardiovascular mortality in heart failure patients: data from the T.O.S.CA. registry

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    Introduction Data from the “Trattamento Ormonale nello Scompenso CArdiaco” (T.O.S.CA) registry showed that heart failure (HF) represents a complex clinical syndrome with different hormonal alterations. Renal failure represents a frequent complication in HF. We evaluated the relationship between renal function and insuline-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency and its impact on cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients enrolled in the T.O.S.CA. registry. Methods At the enrolment, all subjects underwent chemistry examinations, including circulating hormones and cardiovascular functional tests. COX regression analysis was used to evaluate factors related to CVM during the follow-up period in all populations, in high-risk patients and in the young-adult population. Also, we evaluate the effects of renal function on the CVM. Results 337 patients (41 deceased) were analyzed. CVM was related to severe renal dysfunction (HR stages IV–V = 4.86), high-risk conditions (HR 2.25), serum IGF-1 (HR 0.42), and HF etiology (HR 5.85 and HR 1.63 for valvular and ischemic etiology, respectively). In high-risk patients, CVM was related to IGF-1 levels, severe renal dysfunction and valvular etiology, whereas in young patients CMV was related to the high-risk pattern and serum IGF-1 levels. Conclusions Our study showed the clinical and prognostic utility of the IGF-1 assay in patients with HF.</p

    Multifrequency studies of the peculiar quasar 4C+21.35 during the 2010 flaring activity

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    The discovery of rapidly variable Very High Energy ( VHE; E &gt; 100 GeV). - ray emission from 4C + 21.35 ( PKS 1222+ 216) by MAGIC on 2010 June 17, triggered by the high activity detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope ( LAT) in high energy ( HE; E &gt; 100 MeV). - rays, poses intriguing questions on the location of the. - ray emitting region in this flat spectrum radio quasar. We present multifrequency data of 4C + 21.35 collected from centimeter to VHE during 2010 to investigate the properties of this source and discuss a possible emission model. The first hint of detection at VHE was observed by MAGIC on 2010 May 3, soon after a gamma- ray flare detected by Fermi-LAT that peaked on April 29. The same emission mechanism may therefore be responsible for both the HE and VHE emission during the 2010 flaring episodes. Two optical peaks were detected on 2010 April 20 and June 30, close in time but not simultaneous with the two gamma- ray peaks, while no clear connection was observed between the X-ray and gamma- ray emission. An increasing flux density was observed in radio and mm bands from the beginning of 2009, in accordance with the increasing gamma- ray activity observed by Fermi-LAT, and peaking on 2011 January 27 in the mm regime ( 230 GHz). We model the spectral energy distributions ( SEDs) of 4C + 21.35 for the two periods of the VHE detection and a quiescent state, using a one-zone model with the emission coming from a very compact region outside the broad line region. The three SEDs can be fit with a combination of synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission of seed photons from a dust torus, changing only the electron distribution parameters between the epochs. The fit of the optical/UV part of the spectrum for 2010 April 29 seems to favor an inner disk radius of &lt; six gravitational radii, as one would expect from a prograde-rotating Kerr black hole.</p

    Progressive right ventricular dysfunction and exercise impairment in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus: insights from the T.O.S.CA. Registry

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    Background: Findings from the T.O.S.CA. Registry recently reported that patients with concomitant chronic heart failure (CHF) and impairment of insulin axis (either insulin resistance—IR or diabetes mellitus—T2D) display increased morbidity and mortality. However, little information is available on the relative impact of IR and T2D on cardiac structure and function, cardiopulmonary performance, and their longitudinal changes in CHF. Methods: Patients enrolled in the T.O.S.CA. Registry performed echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test at baseline and at a patient-average follow-up of 36 months. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree of insulin impairment: euglycemic without IR (EU), euglycemic with IR (IR), and T2D. Results: Compared with EU and IR, T2D was associated with increased filling pressures (E/eâ€Čratio: 15.9 ± 8.9, 12.0 ± 6.5, and 14.5 ± 8.1 respectively, p < 0.01) and worse right ventricular(RV)-arterial uncoupling (RVAUC) (TAPSE/PASP ratio 0.52 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.3, and 0.6 ± 0.3 in T2D, EU and IR, respectively, p < 0.05). Likewise, impairment in peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) in TD2 vs EU and IR patients was recorded (respectively, 15.8 ± 3.8 ml/Kg/min, 18.4 ± 4.3 ml/Kg/min and 16.5 ± 4.3 ml/Kg/min, p < 0.003). Longitudinal data demonstrated higher deterioration of RVAUC, RV dimension, and peak VO2 in the T2D group (+ 13% increase in RV dimension, − 21% decline in TAPSE/PAPS ratio and − 20% decrease in peak VO2). Conclusion: The higher risk of death and CV hospitalizations exhibited by HF-T2D patients in the T.O.S.CA. Registry is associated with progressive RV ventricular dysfunction and exercise impairment when compared to euglycemic CHF patients, supporting the pivotal importance of hyperglycaemia and right chambers in HF prognosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02335801

    Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914

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    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams. </p

    MAGIC and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray results on unassociated HAWC sources

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    The HAWC Collaboration released the 2HWC catalogue of TeV sources, in which 19 show no association with any known high-energy (HE; E greater than or similar to 10 GeV) or very-high-energy (VHE; E greater than or similar to 300 GeV) sources. This catalogue motivated follow-up studies by both the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) and Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) observatories with the aim of investigating gamma-ray emission over a broad energy band. In this paper, we report the results from the first joint work between High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC), MAGIC, and Fermi-LAT on three unassociated HAWC sources: 2HWC J2006+341, 2HWC J1907+084*, and 2HWC J1852+013*. Although no significant detection was found in the HE and VHE regimes, this investigation shows that a minimum 1 degrees extension (at 95 per cent confidence level) and harder spectrum in the GeV than the one extrapolated from HAWC results are required in the case of 2HWC J1852+013*, whilst a simply minimum extension of 0.16 degrees (at 95 per cent confidence level) can already explain the scenario proposed by HAWC for the remaining sources. Moreover, the hypothesis that these sources are pulsar wind nebulae is also investigated in detail

    Progressive right ventricular dysfunction and exercise impairment in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus: insights from the T.O.S.CA. Registry.

    No full text
    Background: Findings from the T.O.S.CA. Registry recently reported that patients with concomitant chronic heart failure (CHF) and impairment of insulin axis (either insulin resistance-IR or diabetes mellitus-T2D) display increased morbidity and mortality. However, little information is available on the relative impact of IR and T2D on cardiac structure and function, cardiopulmonary performance, and their longitudinal changes in CHF. Methods: Patients enrolled in the T.O.S.CA. Registry performed echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test at baseline and at a patient-average follow-up of 36 months. Patients were divided into three groups based on the degree of insulin impairment: euglycemic without IR (EU), euglycemic with IR (IR), and T2D. Results: Compared with EU and IR, T2D was associated with increased filling pressures (E/e'ratio: 15.9 ± 8.9, 12.0 ± 6.5, and 14.5 ± 8.1 respectively, p &lt; 0.01) and worse right ventricular(RV)-arterial uncoupling (RVAUC) (TAPSE/PASP ratio 0.52 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.3, and 0.6 ± 0.3 in T2D, EU and IR, respectively, p &lt; 0.05). Likewise, impairment in peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) in TD2 vs EU and IR patients was recorded (respectively, 15.8 ± 3.8 ml/Kg/min, 18.4 ± 4.3 ml/Kg/min and 16.5 ± 4.3 ml/Kg/min, p &lt; 0.003). Longitudinal data demonstrated higher deterioration of RVAUC, RV dimension, and peak VO2 in the T2D group (+ 13% increase in RV dimension, - 21% decline in TAPSE/PAPS ratio and - 20% decrease in peak VO2). Conclusion: The higher risk of death and CV hospitalizations exhibited by HF-T2D patients in the T.O.S.CA. Registry is associated with progressive RV ventricular dysfunction and exercise impairment when compared to euglycemic CHF patients, supporting the pivotal importance of hyperglycaemia and right chambers in HF prognosis

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as predictor of cardiovascular mortality in heart failure patients: data from the T.O.S.CA. registry

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    Introduction: Data from the “Trattamento Ormonale nello Scompenso CArdiaco” (T.O.S.CA) registry showed that heart failure (HF) represents a complex clinical syndrome with different hormonal alterations. Renal failure represents a frequent complication in HF. We evaluated the relationship between renal function and insuline-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency and its impact on cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients enrolled in the T.O.S.CA. registry. Methods: At the enrolment, all subjects underwent chemistry examinations, including circulating hormones and cardiovascular functional tests. COX regression analysis was used to evaluate factors related to CVM during the follow-up period in all populations, in high-risk patients and in the young-adult population. Also, we evaluate the effects of renal function on the CVM. Results: 337 patients (41 deceased) were analyzed. CVM was related to severe renal dysfunction (HR stages IV–V = 4.86), high-risk conditions (HR 2.25), serum IGF-1 (HR 0.42), and HF etiology (HR 5.85 and HR 1.63 for valvular and ischemic etiology, respectively). In high-risk patients, CVM was related to IGF-1 levels, severe renal dysfunction and valvular etiology, whereas in young patients CMV was related to the high-risk pattern and serum IGF-1 levels. Conclusions: Our study showed the clinical and prognostic utility of the IGF-1 assay in patients with HF

    Characterizing the population of pulsars in the inner Galaxy with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

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    An excess of γ\gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center (GC) region with respect to predictions based on a variety of interstellar emission models and γ\gamma-ray source catalogs has been found by many groups using data from the {\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT). Several interpretations of this excess have been invoked. In this paper we search for members of an unresolved population of γ\gamma-ray pulsars located in the inner Galaxy that are predicted by the interpretation of the GC excess as being due to a population of such sources. We use cataloged LAT sources to derive criteria that efficiently select pulsars with very small contamination from blazars. We search for point sources in the inner 40∘×40∘40^\circ\times40^\circ region of the Galaxy, derive a list of approximately 400 sources, and apply pulsar selection criteria to extract pulsar candidates among our source list. We performed the entire data analysis chain with two different interstellar emission models (IEMs), and found a total of 135 pulsar candidates, of which 66 were selected with both IEMs
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