223 research outputs found

    A recurrent homozygous missense DPM3 variant leads to muscle and brain disease.

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    Biallelic pathogenic variants in the genes encoding the dolichol-phosphate mannose synthase subunits (DPM) which produce mannosyl donors for glycosylphosphatidylinositols, N-glycan and protein O- and C-mannosylation, are rare causes of congenital disorders of glycosylation. Pathogenic variants in DPM1 and DPM2 are associated with muscle-eye-brain (MEB) disease, whereas DPM3 variants have mostly been reported in patients with isolated muscle disease-dystroglycanopathy. Thus far, only one affected individual with compound heterozygous DPM3 variants presenting with myopathy, mild intellectual disability, seizures, and nonspecific white matter abnormalities (WMA) around the lateral ventricles has been described. Here we present five affected individuals from four unrelated families with global developmental delay/intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe, microcephaly, seizures, WMA, muscle weakness and variable cardiomyopathy. Exome sequencing of the probands revealed an ultra-rare homozygous pathogenic missense DPM3 variant NM_018973.4:c.221A>G, p.(Tyr74Cys) which segregated with the phenotype in all families. Haplotype analysis indicated that the variant arose independently in three families. Functional analysis did not reveal any alteration in the N-glycosylation pathway caused by the variant; however, this does not exclude its pathogenicity in the function of the DPM complex and related cellular pathways. This report provides supporting evidence that, besides DPM1 and DPM2, defects in DPM3 can also lead to a muscle and brain phenotype

    Childhood amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by excess sphingolipid synthesis

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    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease of the lower and upper motor neurons with sporadic or hereditary occurrence. Age of onset, pattern of motor neuron degeneration and disease progression vary widely among individuals with ALS. Various cellular processes may drive ALS pathomechanisms, but a monogenic direct metabolic disturbance has not been causally linked to ALS. Here we show SPTLC1 variants that result in unrestrained sphingoid base synthesis cause a monogenic form of ALS. We identified four specific, dominantly acting SPTLC1 variants in seven families manifesting as childhood-onset ALS. These variants disrupt the normal homeostatic regulation of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) by ORMDL proteins, resulting in unregulated SPT activity and elevated levels of canonical SPT products. Notably, this is in contrast with SPTLC1 variants that shift SPT amino acid usage from serine to alanine, result in elevated levels of deoxysphingolipids and manifest with the alternate phenotype of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. We custom designed small interfering RNAs that selectively target the SPTLC1 ALS allele for degradation, leave the normal allele intact and normalize sphingolipid levels in vitro. The role of primary metabolic disturbances in ALS has been elusive; this study defines excess sphingolipid biosynthesis as a fundamental metabolic mechanism for motor neuron disease

    FBXO28 causes developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with profound intellectual disability

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    Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome is a rare cause of intellectual disability, seizures, dysmorphology, and multiple anomalies. Two genes in the 1q41-q42 microdeletion, WDR26 and FBXO28, have been implicated in monogenic disease. Patients with WDR26 encephalopathy overlap clinically with those with 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome, whereas only one patient with FBXO28 encephalopathy has been described. Seizures are a prominent feature of 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome; therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic FBXO28 variants cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). We describe nine new patients with FBXO28 pathogenic variants (four missense, including one recurrent, three nonsense, and one frameshift) and analyze all 10 known cases to delineate the phenotypic spectrum. All patients had epilepsy and 9 of 10 had DEE, including infantile spasms (3) and a progressive myoclonic epilepsy (1). Median age at seizure onset was 22.5 months (range 8 months to 5 years). Nine of 10 patients had intellectual disability, which was profound in six of nine and severe in three of nine. Movement disorders occurred in eight of 10 patients, six of 10 had hypotonia, four of 10 had acquired microcephaly, and five of 10 had dysmorphic features, albeit different to those typically seen in 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome and WDR26 encephalopathy. We distinguish FBXO28 encephalopathy from both of these disorders with more severe intellectual impairment, drug-resistant epilepsy, and hyperkinetic movement disorders

    An ancestral 10-bp repeat expansion in VWA1 causes recessive hereditary motor neuropathy

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    The extracellular matrix comprises a network of macromolecules such as collagens, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. VWA1 (von Willebrand factor A domain containing 1) encodes a component of the extracellular matrix that interacts with perlecan/collagen VI, appears to be involved in stabilizing extracellular matrix structures, and demonstrates high expression levels in tibial nerve. Vwa1-deficient mice manifest with abnormal peripheral nerve structure/function; however, VWA1 variants have not previously been associated with human disease. By interrogating the genome sequences of 74 180 individuals from the 100K Genomes Project in combination with international gene-matching efforts and targeted sequencing, we identified 17 individuals from 15 families with an autosomal-recessive, non-length dependent, hereditary motor neuropathy and rare biallelic variants in VWA1. A single disease-associated allele p.(G25Rfs∗74), a 10-bp repeat expansion, was observed in 14/15 families and was homozygous in 10/15. Given an allele frequency in European populations approaching 1/1000, the seven unrelated homozygote individuals ascertained from the 100K Genomes Project represents a substantial enrichment above expected. Haplotype analysis identified a shared 220 kb region suggesting that this founder mutation arose >7000 years ago. A wide age-range of patients (6-83 years) helped delineate the clinical phenotype over time. The commonest disease presentation in the cohort was an early-onset (mean 2.0 ± 1.4 years) non-length-dependent axonal hereditary motor neuropathy, confirmed on electrophysiology, which will have to be differentiated from other predominantly or pure motor neuropathies and neuronopathies. Because of slow disease progression, ambulation was largely preserved. Neurophysiology, muscle histopathology, and muscle MRI findings typically revealed clear neurogenic changes with single isolated cases displaying additional myopathic process. We speculate that a few findings of myopathic changes might be secondary to chronic denervation rather than indicating an additional myopathic disease process. Duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting using patient fibroblasts revealed that the founder allele results in partial nonsense mediated decay and an absence of detectable protein. CRISPR and morpholino vwa1 modelling in zebrafish demonstrated reductions in motor neuron axonal growth, synaptic formation in the skeletal muscles and locomotive behaviour. In summary, we estimate that biallelic variants in VWA1 may be responsible for up to 1% of unexplained hereditary motor neuropathy cases in Europeans. The detailed clinical characterization provided here will facilitate targeted testing on suitable patient cohorts. This novel disease gene may have previously evaded detection because of high GC content, consequential low coverage and computational difficulties associated with robustly detecting repeat-expansions. Reviewing previously unsolved exomes using lower QC filters may generate further diagnoses

    Recurrent TTN metatranscript-only c.39974-11T>G splice variant associated with autosomal recessive arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and myopathy

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    We present eight families with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and myopathy bearing a TTN intron 213 extended splice-site variant (NM_001267550.1:c.39974-11T>G), inherited in trans with a second pathogenic TTN variant. Muscle-derived RNA studies of three individuals confirmed mis-splicing induced by the c.39974-11T>G variant; in-frame exon 214 skipping or use of a cryptic 3 ' splice-site effecting a frameshift. Confounding interpretation of pathogenicity is the absence of exons 213-217 within the described skeletal muscle TTN N2A isoform. However, RNA-sequencing from 365 adult human gastrocnemius samples revealed that 56% specimens predominantly include exons 213-217 in TTN transcripts (inclusion rate >= 66%). Further, RNA-sequencing of five fetal muscle samples confirmed that 4/5 specimens predominantly include exons 213-217 (fifth sample inclusion rate 57%). Contractures improved significantly with age for four individuals, which may be linked to decreased expression of pathogenic fetal transcripts. Our study extends emerging evidence supporting a vital developmental role for TTN isoforms containing metatranscript-only exons.Peer reviewe

    Collagen VI alpha 2 chain deficiency causes trabecular bone loss by potentially promoting osteoclast differentiation through enhanced TNF alpha signaling

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    Type VI collagen is well known for its role in muscular disorders, however its function in bone is still not well understood. To examine its role in bone we analyzed femoral and vertebral bone mass by micro-computed tomography analysis, which showed lower bone volume/total volume and trabecular number in Col6α2-KO mice compared with WT. Dynamic histomorphometry showed no differences in trabecular bone formation between WT and Col6α2-KO mice based on the mineral appositional rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing perimeter. Femoral sections were assessed for the abundance of Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase-positive osteoclasts, which revealed that mutant mice had more osteoclasts compared with WT mice, indicating that the primary effect of Col6a2 deficiency is on osteoclastogenesis. When bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from WT and Col6α2-KO mice were treated with rmTNFα protein, the Col6α2-KO cells expressed higher levels of TNFα mRNA compared with WT cells. This was accompanied by higher levels of p-p65, a down-stream target of TNFα, suggesting that BMSCs from Col6α2-KO mice are highly sensitive to TNFα signaling. Taken together, our data imply that Col6a2 deficiency causes trabecular bone loss by enhancing osteoclast differentiation through enhanced TNFα signaling