965 research outputs found

    Editor's Choice - Infective Native Aortic Aneurysms: A Delphi Consensus Document on Terminology, Definition, Classification, Diagnosis, and Reporting Standards.

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    There is no consensus regarding the terminology, definition, classification, diagnostic criteria, and algorithm, or reporting standards for the disease of infective native aortic aneurysm (INAA), previously known as mycotic aneurysm. The aim of this study was to establish this by performing a consensus study. The Delphi methodology was used. Thirty-seven international experts were invited via mail to participate. Four two week Delphi rounds were performed, using an online questionnaire, initially with 22 statements and nine reporting items. The panellists rated the statements on a five point Likert scale. Comments on statements were analysed, statements revised, and results presented in iterative rounds. Consensus was defined as ≄ 75% of the panel selecting "strongly agree" or "agree" on the Likert scale, and consensus on the final assessment was defined as Cronbach's alpha coefficient > .80. All 38 panellists completed all four rounds, resulting in 100% participation and agreement that this study was necessary, and the term INAA was agreed to be optimal. Three more statements were added based on the results and comments of the panel, resulting in a final 25 statements and nine reporting items. All 25 statements reached an agreement of ≄ 87%, and all nine reporting items reached an agreement of 100%. The Cronbach's alpha increased for each consecutive round (round 1 = .84, round 2 = .87, round 3 = .90, and round 4 = .92). Thus, consensus was reached for all statements and reporting items. This Delphi study established the first consensus document on INAA regarding terminology, definition, classification, diagnostic criteria, and algorithm, as well as reporting standards. The results of this study create essential conditions for scientific research on this disease. The presented consensus will need future amendments in accordance with newly acquired knowledge

    Rare predicted loss-of-function variants of type I IFN immunity genes are associated with life-threatening COVID-19

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    BackgroundWe previously reported that impaired type I IFN activity, due to inborn errors of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity or to autoantibodies against type I IFN, account for 15-20% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients. Therefore, the determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 remain to be identified in similar to 80% of cases.MethodsWe report here a genome-wide rare variant burden association analysis in 3269 unvaccinated patients with life-threatening COVID-19, and 1373 unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals without pneumonia. Among the 928 patients tested for autoantibodies against type I IFN, a quarter (234) were positive and were excluded.ResultsNo gene reached genome-wide significance. Under a recessive model, the most significant gene with at-risk variants was TLR7, with an OR of 27.68 (95%CI 1.5-528.7, P=1.1x10(-4)) for biochemically loss-of-function (bLOF) variants. We replicated the enrichment in rare predicted LOF (pLOF) variants at 13 influenza susceptibility loci involved in TLR3-dependent type I IFN immunity (OR=3.70[95%CI 1.3-8.2], P=2.1x10(-4)). This enrichment was further strengthened by (1) adding the recently reported TYK2 and TLR7 COVID-19 loci, particularly under a recessive model (OR=19.65[95%CI 2.1-2635.4], P=3.4x10(-3)), and (2) considering as pLOF branchpoint variants with potentially strong impacts on splicing among the 15 loci (OR=4.40[9%CI 2.3-8.4], P=7.7x10(-8)). Finally, the patients with pLOF/bLOF variants at these 15 loci were significantly younger (mean age [SD]=43.3 [20.3] years) than the other patients (56.0 [17.3] years; P=1.68x10(-5)).ConclusionsRare variants of TLR3- and TLR7-dependent type I IFN immunity genes can underlie life-threatening COVID-19, particularly with recessive inheritance, in patients under 60 years old

    Changes in preterm birth and stillbirth during COVID-19 lockdowns in 26 countries.

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    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Changes in PTB rates, ranging from -90% to +30%, were reported in many countries following early COVID-19 pandemic response measures ('lockdowns'). It is unclear whether this variation reflects real differences in lockdown impacts, or perhaps differences in stillbirth rates and/or study designs. Here we present interrupted time series and meta-analyses using harmonized data from 52 million births in 26 countries, 18 of which had representative population-based data, with overall PTB rates ranging from 6% to 12% and stillbirth ranging from 2.5 to 10.5 per 1,000 births. We show small reductions in PTB in the first (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.98, P value <0.0001), second (0.96, 0.92-0.99, 0.03) and third (0.97, 0.94-1.00, 0.09) months of lockdown, but not in the fourth month of lockdown (0.99, 0.96-1.01, 0.34), although there were some between-country differences after the first month. For high-income countries in this study, we did not observe an association between lockdown and stillbirths in the second (1.00, 0.88-1.14, 0.98), third (0.99, 0.88-1.12, 0.89) and fourth (1.01, 0.87-1.18, 0.86) months of lockdown, although we have imprecise estimates due to stillbirths being a relatively rare event. We did, however, find evidence of increased risk of stillbirth in the first month of lockdown in high-income countries (1.14, 1.02-1.29, 0.02) and, in Brazil, we found evidence for an association between lockdown and stillbirth in the second (1.09, 1.03-1.15, 0.002), third (1.10, 1.03-1.17, 0.003) and fourth (1.12, 1.05-1.19, <0.001) months of lockdown. With an estimated 14.8 million PTB annually worldwide, the modest reductions observed during early pandemic lockdowns translate into large numbers of PTB averted globally and warrant further research into causal pathways

    Changes in preterm birth and stillbirth during COVID-19 lockdowns in 26 countries

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    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Changes in PTB rates, ranging from -90% to +30%, were reported in many countries following early COVID-19 pandemic response measures ('lockdowns'). It is unclear whether this variation reflects real differences in lockdown impacts, or perhaps differences in stillbirth rates and/or study designs. Here we present interrupted time series and meta-analyses using harmonized data from 52 million births in 26 countries, 18 of which had representative population-based data, with overall PTB rates ranging from 6% to 12% and stillbirth ranging from 2.5 to 10.5 per 1,000 births. We show small reductions in PTB in the first (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.95-0.98, P value <0.0001), second (0.96, 0.92-0.99, 0.03) and third (0.97, 0.94-1.00, 0.09) months of lockdown, but not in the fourth month of lockdown (0.99, 0.96-1.01, 0.34), although there were some between-country differences after the first month. For high-income countries in this study, we did not observe an association between lockdown and stillbirths in the second (1.00, 0.88-1.14, 0.98), third (0.99, 0.88-1.12, 0.89) and fourth (1.01, 0.87-1.18, 0.86) months of lockdown, although we have imprecise estimates due to stillbirths being a relatively rare event. We did, however, find evidence of increased risk of stillbirth in the first month of lockdown in high-income countries (1.14, 1.02-1.29, 0.02) and, in Brazil, we found evidence for an association between lockdown and stillbirth in the second (1.09, 1.03-1.15, 0.002), third (1.10, 1.03-1.17, 0.003) and fourth (1.12, 1.05-1.19, <0.001) months of lockdown. With an estimated 14.8 million PTB annually worldwide, the modest reductions observed during early pandemic lockdowns translate into large numbers of PTB averted globally and warrant further research into causal pathways

    Invited review: Iodine level in dairy products—A feed-to-fork overview

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    The theme of iodine in the dairy sector is of particular interest due to the involvement and the interconnection of several stakeholders along the dairy food chain. Iodine plays a fundamental role in animal nutrition and physiology, and in cattle it is an essential micronutrient during lactation and for fetal development and the calf's growth. Its correct use in food supplementation is crucial to guarantee the animal's recommended daily requirement to avoid excess intake and long-term toxicity. Milk iodine is fundamental for public health, being one of the major sources of iodine in Mediterranean and Western diets. Public authorities and the scientific community have made great efforts to address how and to what extent different drivers may affect milk iodine concentration. The scientific literature concurs that the amount of iodine administered through animal feed and mineral supplements is the most important factor affecting its concentration in milk of most common dairy species. Additionally, farming practices related to milking (e.g., use of iodized teat sanitizers), herd management (e.g., pasture vs. confinement), and other environmental factors (e.g., seasonality) have been identified as sources of variation of milk iodine concentration. Overall, the aim of this review is to provide a multilevel overview on the mechanisms that contribute to the iodine concentration of milk and dairy products

    Changes in preterm birth and stillbirth during COVID-19 lockdowns in 26 countries

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    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Changes in PTB rates, ranging from −90% to +30%, were reported in many countries following early COVID-19 pandemic response measures (‘lockdowns’). It is unclear whether this variation reflects real differences in lockdown impacts, or perhaps differences in stillbirth rates and/or study designs. Here we present interrupted time series and meta-analyses using harmonized data from 52 million births in 26 countries, 18 of which had representative population-based data, with overall PTB rates ranging from 6% to 12% and stillbirth ranging from 2.5 to 10.5 per 1,000 births. We show small reductions in PTB in the first (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.95–0.98, P value <0.0001), second (0.96, 0.92–0.99, 0.03) and third (0.97, 0.94–1.00, 0.09) months of lockdown, but not in the fourth month of lockdown (0.99, 0.96–1.01, 0.34), although there were some between-country differences after the first month. For high-income countries in this study, we did not observe an association between lockdown and stillbirths in the second (1.00, 0.88–1.14, 0.98), third (0.99, 0.88–1.12, 0.89) and fourth (1.01, 0.87–1.18, 0.86) months of lockdown, although we have imprecise estimates due to stillbirths being a relatively rare event. We did, however, find evidence of increased risk of stillbirth in the first month of lockdown in high-income countries (1.14, 1.02–1.29, 0.02) and, in Brazil, we found evidence for an association between lockdown and stillbirth in the second (1.09, 1.03–1.15, 0.002), third (1.10, 1.03–1.17, 0.003) and fourth (1.12, 1.05–1.19, <0.001) months of lockdown. With an estimated 14.8 million PTB annually worldwide, the modest reductions observed during early pandemic lockdowns translate into large numbers of PTB averted globally and warrant further research into causal pathways

    Clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation of the window of opportunity for retreatment with rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis patients from a multicentre real-life study

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    International audienceObjective To determine a potential window of opportunity for retreatment with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from a multicentre longitudinal real-life study based on tight monitoring with ultrasonography (US).Methods Thirty RA patients treated with rituximab were included. US parameters were collected at each time (8 visits) of the 18-month follow-up, notably the global score of power Doppler (PD) activity. Clinical relapse was defined as a DAS28 ESR of >3.2 after 6 months in responders while US relapse was defined as an increase of =20% of the global score of PD activity. The decision of retreatment was based exclusively on clinical findings.Results A total of 29 patients were analysed (mean (SD) age: 57.2 (12.2) years; female gender: 66%). The mean (SD) PD score decreased from 8.8 (5.2) at baseline to 4.9 (4.3) at 6 months (p <0.0001). A clinical response was observed at Month 4 or Month 6 for 93% of patients. A total of 19 patients had a first clinical relapse (with or without US relapse) after Month 6 (18 of them were retreated with rituximab). Among 10 patients without clinical relapse, 3 had US relapse (only one was retreated) and 7 had no US relapse (but 4 were retreated).Conclusion This study highlights a great heterogeneity in terms of sequence of clinical relapse, US relapse and retreatment in RA patients receiving rituximab. Therefore, US monitoring does not seem to be relevant to determine the best time for retreatment with rituximab

    Clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation of the window of opportunity for retreatment with rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis patients from a multicentre real-life study

    No full text
    Objective To determine a potential window of opportunity for retreatment with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from a multicentre longitudinal real-life study based on tight monitoring with ultrasonography (US).Methods Thirty RA patients treated with rituximab were included. US parameters were collected at each time (8 visits) of the 18-month follow-up, notably the global score of power Doppler (PD) activity. Clinical relapse was defined as a DAS28 ESR of >3.2 after 6 months in responders while US relapse was defined as an increase of =20% of the global score of PD activity. The decision of retreatment was based exclusively on clinical findings.Results A total of 29 patients were analysed (mean (SD) age: 57.2 (12.2) years; female gender: 66%). The mean (SD) PD score decreased from 8.8 (5.2) at baseline to 4.9 (4.3) at 6 months (p <0.0001). A clinical response was observed at Month 4 or Month 6 for 93% of patients. A total of 19 patients had a first clinical relapse (with or without US relapse) after Month 6 (18 of them were retreated with rituximab). Among 10 patients without clinical relapse, 3 had US relapse (only one was retreated) and 7 had no US relapse (but 4 were retreated).Conclusion This study highlights a great heterogeneity in terms of sequence of clinical relapse, US relapse and retreatment in RA patients receiving rituximab. Therefore, US monitoring does not seem to be relevant to determine the best time for retreatment with rituximab

    Consensus Recommendations for Clinical Outcome Assessments and Registry Development in Ataxias: Ataxia Global Initiative (AGI) Working Group Expert Guidance

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    To accelerate and facilitate clinical trials, the Ataxia Global Initiative (AGI) was established as a worldwide research platform for trial readiness in ataxias. One of AGI’s major goals is the harmonization and standardization of outcome assessments. Clinical outcome assessments (COAs) that describe or reflect how a patient feels or functions are indispensable for clinical trials, but similarly important for observational studies and in routine patient care. The AGI working group on COAs has defined a set of data including a graded catalog of COAs that are recommended as a standard for future assessment and sharing of clinical data and joint clinical studies. Two datasets were defined: a mandatory dataset (minimal dataset) that can ideally be obtained during a routine clinical consultation and a more demanding extended dataset that is useful for research purposes. In the future, the currently most widely used clinician-reported outcome measure (ClinRO) in ataxia, the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA), should be developed into a generally accepted instrument that can be used in upcoming clinical trials. Furthermore, there is an urgent need (i) to obtain more data on ataxia-specific, patient-reported outcome measures (PROs), (ii) to demonstrate and optimize sensitivity to change of many COAs, and (iii) to establish methods and evidence of anchoring change in COAs in patient meaningfulness, e.g., by determining patient-derived minimally meaningful thresholds of change
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