107 research outputs found

    Single-cell sequencing reveals preserved pancreatic islet cell identity by administration of metabolite-based diet in autoimmune diabetes

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    Background and aims: An altered gut bacterial composition is associatedwith the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and short-chain fatty acids(SCFA) are known play a pivotal role in maintaining gut homeostasis. Aspecial diet based on high-amylose maize-resistant starch modified withacetate and butyrate metabolites (HAMSAB) provided protection fromautoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse model. We recently tested theHAMSAB diet in patients with established T1D showing improvement inglucose control. Based on these findings, we studied the molecular mechanisms and effects of SCFA in pre-diabetic pancreatic islets.Materials and methods: EndoC-βH1 and INS-1E β-cell lines weretreated with acetate (250μM), butyrate (10μM) and/or IFN-γ (1,000U/mL) + IL-1β (50U/mL). The cell viability was analyzed using SYTOX™Green Nucleic Acid Stain assay. five-week-old female NOD mice werefed with HAMSAB or HAMS control diet for five consecutive weeks.The pancreata were harvested, islets isolated using collagenase, anddispersed into single cells by trypsin. Single-cell RNA (scRNA)-sequencing was performed with 10x Chromium. The raw counts were analyzedusing RStudio with the Seurat package. The cells were filtered based onRNA features, counts, and mitochondrial percentage and annotated bytheir principal component analysis using UMAP.Results: Physiological concentrations of acetate and/or butyrate showedminimal effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced cell death inEndoC-βH1 and INS-1E β-cell lines, suggesting that improved β-cellfunction is not due to SCFA-induced β-cell survival. To study the effectof the gut metabolites in the endocrine cells, we performed scRNA-seq inpancreatic islets isolated from pre-diabetic NOD mice fed HAMSAB orHAMS diets for five weeks. scRNA-seq analysis mapped the geneexpression profiles of 4,301 and 4,113 individual islet cells fromHAMSAB or HAMS fed mice, respectively. Cells were annotated into12 clusters: 5 immune and 7 pancreatic endocrine cell types. The scRNAseq dataset indicated that T-cells, B-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cellsubsets infiltrated the islets of Langerhans from both HAMSAB andHAMS-fed mice. Interestingly, HAMSAB reduced the number ofCD8+ cytotoxic cells, in line with previously described tolerogeniceffects. Moreover, subclustering and differential gene expression analysisindicated that HAMSAB enhances β-cell function and decreases theirstress response. In addition, the HAMSAB preserved the identity of endocrine cells evaluated by decreased dedifferentiated poly-hormonal (Ins+Gluc, Ins+Sst) cells expressing endocrine progenitor genes (MafA, Nfix)in mice fed this diet.Conclusion: The HAMSAB diet prevents diabetes development in NODmice, at least in part, by enhancing β-cell function and preserving cellidentity of endocrine cells under inflammatory-mediated autoimmunestress.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Macrophages are metabolically heterogeneous within the tumor microenvironment

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    Macrophages are often prominently present in the tumor microenvironment, where distinct macrophage populations can differentially affect tumor progression. Although metabolism influences macrophage function, studies on the metabolic characteristics of ex vivo tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) subsets are rather limited. Using transcriptomic and metabolic analyses, we now reveal that pro-inflammatory major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-IIhi TAMs display a hampered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reparative MHC-IIlo TAMs show higher oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. Although both TAM subsets rapidly exchange lactate in high-lactate conditions, only MHC-IIlo TAMs use lactate as an additional carbon source. Accordingly, lactate supports the oxidative metabolism in MHC-IIlo TAMs, while it decreases the metabolic activity of MHC-IIhi TAMs. Lactate subtly affects the transcriptome of MHC-IIlo TAMs, increases L-arginine metabolism, and enhances the T cell suppressive capacity of these TAMs. Overall, our data uncover the metabolic intricacies of distinct TAM subsets and identify lactate as a carbon source and metabolic and functional regulator of TAMs

    Macrophages are metabolically heterogeneous within the tumor microenvironment.

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    Macrophages are often prominently present in the tumor microenvironment, where distinct macrophage populations can differentially affect tumor progression. Although metabolism influences macrophage function, studies on the metabolic characteristics of ex vivo tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) subsets are rather limited. Using transcriptomic and metabolic analyses, we now reveal that pro-inflammatory major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II TAMs display a hampered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reparative MHC-II TAMs show higher oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. Although both TAM subsets rapidly exchange lactate in high-lactate conditions, only MHC-II TAMs use lactate as an additional carbon source. Accordingly, lactate supports the oxidative metabolism in MHC-II TAMs, while it decreases the metabolic activity of MHC-II TAMs. Lactate subtly affects the transcriptome of MHC-II TAMs, increases L-arginine metabolism, and enhances the T cell suppressive capacity of these TAMs. Overall, our data uncover the metabolic intricacies of distinct TAM subsets and identify lactate as a carbon source and metabolic and functional regulator of TAMs

    Pancreatic Alpha-Cells Contribute Together With Beta-Cells to CXCL10 Expression in Type 1 Diabetes

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    C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 10 (CXCL10) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine specifically recognized by the ligand receptor CXCR3 which is mostly expressed in T-lymphocytes. Although CXCL10 expression and secretion have been widely associated to pancreatic islets both in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and in human type 1 diabetic (T1D) donors, the specific expression pattern among pancreatic endocrine cell subtypes has not been clarified yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to shed light on the pancreatic islet expression of CXCL10 in NOD, in C57Bl/6J and in NOD-SCID mice as well as in human T1D pancreata from new-onset T1D patients (DiViD study) compared to non-diabetic multiorgan donors from the INNODIA European Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (EUnPOD). CXCL10 was expressed in pancreatic islets of normoglycaemic and new-onset diabetic NOD mice but not in C57Bl/6J and NOD-SCID mice. CXCL10 expression was increased in pancreatic islets of new-onset diabetic NOD mice compared to normoglycaemic NOD mice. In NOD mice, CXCL10 colocalized both with insulin and glucagon. Interestingly, CXCL10-glucagon colocalization rate was significantly increased in diabetic vs. normoglycaemic NOD mouse islets, indicating an increased expression of CXCL10 also in alpha-cells. CXCL10 was expressed in pancreatic islets of T1D patients but not in non-diabetic donors. The analysis of the expression pattern of CXCL10 in human T1D pancreata from DiViD study, revealed an increased colocalization rate with glucagon compared to insulin. Of note, CXCL10 was also expressed in alpha-cells residing in insulin-deficient islets (IDI), suggesting that CXCL10 expression in alpha cells is not driven by residual beta-cells and therefore may represent an independent phenomenon. In conclusion, we show that in T1D CXCL10 is expressed by alpha-cells both in NOD mice and in T1D patients, thus pointing to an additional novel role for alpha-cells in T1D pathogenesis and progression

    SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Type 2 (ACE2) Is Expressed in Human Pancreatic β-Cells and in the Human Pancreas Microvasculature

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    Increasing evidence demonstrated that the expression of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a necessary step for SARS-CoV-2 infection permissiveness. In light of the recent data highlighting an association between COVID-19 and diabetes, a detailed analysis aimed at evaluating ACE2 expression pattern distribution in human pancreas is still lacking. Here, we took advantage of INNODIA network EUnPOD biobank collection to thoroughly analyze ACE2, both at mRNA and protein level, in multiple human pancreatic tissues and using several methodologies. Using multiple reagents and antibodies, we showed that ACE2 is expressed in human pancreatic islets, where it is preferentially expressed in subsets of insulin producing β-cells. ACE2 is also highly expressed in pancreas microvasculature pericytes and moderately expressed in rare scattered ductal cells. By using different ACE2 antibodies we showed that a recently described short-ACE2 isoform is also prevalently expressed in human β-cells. Finally, using RT-qPCR, RNA-seq and High-Content imaging screening analysis, we demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not palmitate, increase ACE2 expression in the β-cell line EndoC-βH1 and in primary human pancreatic islets. Taken together, our data indicate a potential link between SARS-CoV-2 and diabetes through putative infection of pancreatic microvasculature and/or ductal cells and/or through direct β-cell virus tropism

    miR-409-3p is reduced in plasma and islet immune infiltrates of NOD diabetic mice and is differentially expressed in people with type 1 diabetes

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    Aims/hypothesis: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of potential biomarkers emerging in many diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Here, we aim to analyse a panel of circulating miRNAs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods: We adopted standardised methodologies for extracting miRNAs from small sample volumes to evaluate a profiling panel of mature miRNAs in paired plasma and laser-captured microdissected immune-infiltrated islets of recently diabetic and normoglycaemic NOD mice. Moreover, we validated the findings during disease progression and remission after anti-CD3 therapy in NOD mice, as well as in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Results: Plasma levels of five miRNAs were downregulated in diabetic vs normoglycaemic mice. Of those, miR-409-3p was also downregulated in situ in the immune islet infiltrates of diabetic mice, suggesting an association with disease pathogenesis. Target-prediction tools linked miR-409-3p to immune- and metabolism-related signalling molecules. In situ miR-409-3p expression correlated with insulitis severity, and CD8+ central memory T cells were found to be enriched in miR-409-3p. Plasma miR-409-3p levels gradually decreased during diabetes development and improved with disease remission after anti-CD3 antibody therapy. Finally, plasma miR-409-3p levels were lower in people recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes compared with a non-diabetic control group, and levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c levels. Conclusions/interpretation: We propose that miR-409-3p may represent a new circulating biomarker of islet inflammation and type 1 diabetes severity

    An integrated multi-omics approach identifies the landscape of interferon-α-mediated responses of human pancreatic beta cells

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    Interferon-α (IFNα), a type I interferon, is expressed in the islets of type 1 diabetic individuals, and its expression and signaling are regulated by T1D genetic risk variants and viral infections associated with T1D. We presently characterize human beta cell responses to IFNα by combining ATAC-seq, RNA-seq and proteomics assays. The initial response to IFNα is characterized by chromatin remodeling, followed by changes in transcriptional and translational regulation. IFNα induces changes in alternative splicing (AS) and first exon usage, increasing the diversity of transcripts expressed by the beta cells. This, combined with changes observed on protein modification/degradation, ER stress and MHC class I, may expand antigens presented by beta cells to the immune system. Beta cells also up-regulate the checkpoint proteins PDL1 and HLA-E that may exert a protective role against the autoimmune assault. Data mining of the present multi-omics analysis identifies two compound classes that antagonize IFNα effects on human beta cells.This article is freely available via Open Access. Click on the Publisher URL to access it via the publisher's site.P30 DK097512/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States UC4 DK104166/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States MR/P010695/1/MRC_/Medical Research Council/United Kingdompublished version, accepted version, submitted versio

    Intestinal Delivery of Proinsulin and IL-10 via Lactococcus lactis Combined With Low-Dose Anti-CD3 Restores Tolerance Outside the Window of Acute Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis

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    A combination treatment (CT) of proinsulin and IL-10 orally delivered via genetically modified Lactococcus lactis bacteria combined with low-dose anti-CD3 (aCD3) therapy successfully restores glucose homeostasis in newly diagnosed non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Tolerance is accompanied by the accumulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the pancreas. To test the potential of this therapy outside the window of acute diabetes diagnosis, we substituted autoimmune diabetic mice, with disease duration varying between 4 and 53 days, with syngeneic islets at the time of therapy initiation. Untreated islet recipients consistently showed disease recurrence after 8.2 ± 0.7 days, while 32% of aCD3-treated and 48% of CT-treated mice remained normoglycemic until 6 weeks after therapy initiation (P < 0.001 vs. untreated controls for both treatments, P < 0.05 CT vs. aCD3 therapy). However, mice that were diabetic for more than 2 weeks before treatment initiation were less efficient at maintaining normoglycemia than those treated within 2 weeks of diabetes diagnosis, particularly in the aCD3-treated group. The complete elimination of endogenous beta cell mass with alloxan at the time of diabetes diagnosis pointed toward the significance of continuous feeding of the islet antigen proinsulin at the time of aCD3 therapy for treatment success. The CT providing proinsulin protected 69% of mice, compared to 33% when an irrelevant antigen (ovalbumin) was combined with aCD3 therapy, or to 27% with aCD3 therapy alone. Sustained tolerance was accompanied with a reduction of IGRP+CD8+ autoreactive T cells and an increase in insulin-reactive (InsB12–20 or InsB13–2) Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs, with a specific accumulation of Foxp3+ Tregs around the insulin-containing islet grafts after CT with proinsulin. The combination of proinsulin and IL-10 via oral Lactococcus lactis with low-dose aCD3 therapy can restore tolerance to beta cells in autoimmune diabetic mice, also when therapy is started outside the window of acute diabetes diagnosis, providing persistence of insulin-containing islets or prolonged beta cell function

    Longitudinal In Vivo Assessment of Host-Microbe Interactions in a Murine Model of Pulmonary Aspergillosis

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    The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is ubiquitous in nature and the most common cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with a compromised immune system. The development of IPA in patients under immunosuppressive treatment or in patients with primary immunodeficiency demonstrates the importance of the host immune response in controlling aspergillosis. However, study of the host-microbe interaction has been hampered by the lack of tools for their non-invasive assessment. We developed a methodology to study the response of the host's immune system against IPA longitudinally in vivo by using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI). We showed the advantage of a perfluorocarbon-based contrast agent for the in vivo labeling of macrophages and dendritic cells, permitting quantification of pulmonary inflammation in different murine IPA models. Our findings reveal the potential of 19F MRI for the assessment of rapid kinetics of innate immune response against IPA and the permissive niche generated through immunosuppression.status: publishe

    Longitudinal In Vivo Assessment of Host-Microbe Interactions in a Murine Model of Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

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    The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is ubiquitous in nature and the most common cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with a compromised immune system. The development of IPA in patients under immunosuppressive treatment or in patients with primary immunodeficiency demonstrates the importance of the host immune response in controlling aspergillosis. However, study of the host-microbe interaction has been hampered by the lack of tools for their non-invasive assessment. We developed a methodology to study the response of the host's immune system against IPA longitudinally in vivo by using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI). We showed the advantage of a perfluorocarbon-based contrast agent for the in vivo labeling of macrophages and dendritic cells, permitting quantification of pulmonary inflammation in different murine IPA models. Our findings reveal the potential of 19F MRI for the assessment of rapid kinetics of innate immune response against IPA and the permissive niche generated through immunosuppression.We are grateful for the financial support by the following funding agencies: the European Commission Marie Curie (ITN) BetaTrain (289932), the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO, G.0A75.14, G.0B28.14, and G.069115N), the Agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie for the SBO NanoCoMIT (IWT SBO 140061), the European ERA-NET project “CryptoView” (third call of the FP7 programme Infect-ERA), and KU Leuven for PF 10/017 (IMIR)
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