767 research outputs found

    Solution of the infinite range t-J model

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    The t-J model with constant t and J between any pair of sites is studied by exploiting the symmetry of the Hamiltonian with respect to site permutations. For a given number of electrons and a given total spin the exchange term simply yields an additive constant. Therefore the real problem is to diagonalize the "t- model", or equivalently the infinite U Hubbard Hamiltonian. Using extensively the properties of the permutation group, we are able to find explicitly both the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates, labeled according to spin quantum numbers and Young diagrams. As a corollary we also obtain the degenerate ground states of the finite UU Hubbard model with infinite range hopping -t>0.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figure

    Skyrmion Lattice in a Chiral Magnet

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    Skyrmions represent topologically stable field configurations with particle-like properties. We used neutron scattering to observe the spontaneous formation of a two-dimensional lattice of skyrmion lines, a type of magnetic vortices, in the chiral itinerant-electron magnet MnSi. The skyrmion lattice stabilizes at the border between paramagnetism and long-range helimagnetic order perpendicular to a small applied magnetic field regardless of the direction of the magnetic field relative to the atomic lattice. Our study experimentally establishes magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry as an arena for new forms of crystalline order composed of topologically stable spin states

    The Most Severe Test for Hydrophobicity Scales: Two Proteins with 88% Sequence Identity but Different Structure and Function

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    Protein-protein interactions (protein functionalities) are mediated by water, which compacts individual proteins and promotes close and temporarily stable large-area protein-protein interfaces. In their classic paper Kyte and Doolittle (KD) concluded that the "simplicity and graphic nature of hydrophobicity scales make them very useful tools for the evaluation of protein structures". In practice, however, attempts to develop hydrophobicity scales (for example, compatible with classical force fields (CFF) in calculating the energetics of protein folding) have encountered many difficulties. Here we suggest an entirely different approach, based on the idea that proteins are self-organized networks, subject to finite-scale criticality (like some network glasses). We test this proposal against two small proteins that are delicately balanced between alpha and alpha/beta structures, with different functions encoded with only 12% of their amino acids. This example explains why protein structure prediction is so challenging, and it provides a severe test for the accuracy and content of hydrophobicity scales. The new method confirms KD's evaluation, and at the same time suggests that protein structure, dynamics and function can be best discussed without using CFF

    Botulinum neurotoxin type C protease induces apoptosis in differentiated human neuroblastoma cells

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    Neuroblastomas constitute a major cause of cancer-related deaths in young children. In recent years, a number of translation-inhibiting enzymes have been evaluated for killing neuroblastoma cells. Here we investigated the potential vulnerability of human neuroblastoma cells to protease activity derived from botulinum neurotoxin type C. We show that following retinoic acid treatment, human neuroblastoma cells, SiMa and SH-SY5Y, acquire a neuronal phenotype evidenced by axonal growth and expression of neuronal markers. Botulinum neurotoxin type C which cleaves neuron-specific SNAP25 and syntaxin1 caused apoptotic death only in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. Direct comparison of translation-inhibiting enzymes and the type C botulinum protease revealed one order higher cytotoxic potency of the latter suggesting a novel neuroblastoma-targeting pathway. Our mechanistic insights revealed that loss of ubiquitous SNAP23 due to differentiation coupled to SNAP25 cleavage due to botulinum activity may underlie the apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma cells

    On a global differential geometric approach to the rational mechanics of deformable media

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    In the past the rational mechanics of deformable media was largely concerned with materials governed by linear constitutive equations. In recent years, the theory has expanded considerably towards covering materials for which the constitutive equations are inherently nonlinear, and/or whose mechanical properties resemble in some respects those of a fluid and in others those of a solid. In the present article we formulate a satisfactory global mathematical theory of moving deformable media, which includes all these aspects

    Topological Hall effect in the A-phase of MnSi

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    Recent small angle neutron scattering suggests, that the spin structure in the A-phase of MnSi is a so-called triple-QQ state, i.e., a superposition of three helices under 120 degrees. Model calculations suggest that this structure in fact is a lattice of so-called skyrmions, i.e., a lattice of topologically stable knots in the spin structure. We report a distinct additional contribution to the Hall effect in the temperature and magnetic field range of the proposed skyrmion lattice, where such a contribution is neither seen nor expected for a normal helical state. Our Hall effect measurements constitute a direct observation of a topologically quantized Berry phase that identifies the spin structure seen in neutron scattering as the proposed skyrmion lattice

    Exact integral equation for the renormalized Fermi surface

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    The true Fermi surface of a fermionic many-body system can be viewed as a fixed point manifold of the renormalization group (RG). Within the framework of the exact functional RG we show that the fixed point condition implies an exact integral equation for the counterterm which is needed for a self-consistent calculation of the Fermi surface. In the simplest approximation, our integral equation reduces to the self-consistent Hartree-Fock equation for the counterterm.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figur

    Recent advances in TIS research: towards a new phase in transition studies

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    The technological innovation systems (TIS) approach has become one of the key frameworks for the study of emerging technologies in and beyond the context of sustainability transitions. It focuses on understanding the dynamics of an innovation system associated with a specific technology. The approach is often used to assess the performance of a TIS, to identify shortcomings and to derive policy recommendations for the support of a selected technology (Bergek et al., 2008; Hekkert and Negro, 2009). Since its inception, the framework has seen several conceptual developments, including a clarification of scoping issues, TIS functions as a central tool for performance assessment, a strategic perspective on system building, international and global ties within TIS, and suggestions for the analysis of TIS contexts (Bergek et al., 2015; Binz et al., 2014; Markard et al., 2015). At the same time, however, there are also new conceptual challenges, especially when the TIS is used for sustainability transition studies. One of these challenges is how to study whole system reconfigurations, i.e. to move beyond the focus on specific technologies. Ongoing transitions such as the energy transition currently enter into a new phase of accelerated development, in which multiple emerging and mature technologies interact. Other conceptual challenges include the decline of incumbent technologies, intensified struggles among actors or transition processes transcending sectoral and national boundaries

    Van Hove singularity and spontaneous Fermi surface symmetry breaking in Sr3Ru2O7

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    The most salient features observed around a metamagnetic transition in Sr3Ru2O7 are well captured in a simple model for spontaneous Fermi surface symmetry breaking under a magnetic field, without invoking a putative quantum critical point. The Fermi surface symmetry breaking happens in both a majority and a minority spin band but with a different magnitude of the order parameter, when either band is tuned close to van Hove filling by the magnetic field. The transition is second order for high temperature T and changes into first order for low T. The first order transition is accompanied by a metamagnetic transition. The uniform magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat coefficient show strong T dependence, especially a log T divergence at van Hove filling. The Fermi surface instability then cuts off such non-Fermi liquid behavior and gives rise to a cusp in the susceptibility and a specific heat jump at the transition temperature.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figure
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