139 research outputs found

    FOREIGN TOBACCO OUTLOOK

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    Production Economics,

    THE INTERNATIONAL OUTLOOK FOR U.S. TOBACCO

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    Crop Production/Industries,

    iPSC-derived myelinoids to study myelin biology of humans

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    Myelination is essential for central nervous system (CNS) formation, health, and function. Emerging evidence of oligodendrocyte heterogeneity in health and disease and divergent CNS gene expression profiles between mice and humans supports the development of experimentally tractable human myelination systems. Here, we developed human iPSC-derived myelinating organoids (‚Äúmyelinoids‚ÄĚ) and quantitative tools to study myelination from oligodendrogenesis through to compact myelin formation and myelinated axon organization. Using patient-derived cells, we modeled a monogenetic disease of myelinated axons (Nfasc155 deficiency), recapitulating impaired paranodal axo-glial junction formation. We also validated the use of myelinoids for pharmacological assessment of myelination‚ÄĒboth at the level of individual oligodendrocytes and globally across whole myelinoids‚ÄĒand demonstrated reduced myelination in response to suppressed synaptic vesicle release. Our study provides a platform to investigate human myelin development, disease, and adaptive myelination

    ABHD11 maintains 2-oxoglutarate metabolism by preserving functional lipoylation of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex

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    Abstract: 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG or őĪ-ketoglutarate) relates mitochondrial metabolism to cell function by modulating the activity of 2-OG dependent dioxygenases involved in the hypoxia response and DNA/histone modifications. However, metabolic pathways that regulate these oxygen and 2-OG sensitive enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, using CRISPR Cas9 genome-wide mutagenesis to screen for genetic determinants of 2-OG levels, we uncover a redox sensitive mitochondrial lipoylation pathway, dependent on the mitochondrial hydrolase ABHD11, that signals changes in mitochondrial 2-OG metabolism to 2-OG dependent dioxygenase function. ABHD11 loss or inhibition drives a rapid increase in 2-OG levels by impairing lipoylation of the 2-OG dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc)‚ÄĒthe rate limiting step for mitochondrial 2-OG metabolism. Rather than facilitating lipoate conjugation, ABHD11 associates with the OGDHc and maintains catalytic activity of lipoyl domain by preventing the formation of lipoyl adducts, highlighting ABHD11 as a regulator of functional lipoylation and 2-OG metabolism

    Amount of Information Needed for Model Choice in Approximate Bayesian Computation

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    Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) has become a popular technique in evolutionary genetics for elucidating population structure and history due to its flexibility. The statistical inference framework has benefited from significant progress in recent years. In population genetics, however, its outcome depends heavily on the amount of information in the dataset, whether that be the level of genetic variation or the number of samples and loci. Here we look at the power to reject a simple constant population size coalescent model in favor of a bottleneck model in datasets of varying quality. Not only is this power dependent on the number of samples and loci, but it also depends strongly on the level of nucleotide diversity in the observed dataset. Whilst overall model choice in an ABC setting is fairly powerful and quite conservative with regard to false positives, detecting weaker bottlenecks is problematic in smaller or less genetically diverse datasets and limits the inferences possible in non-model organism where the amount of information regarding the two models is often limited. Our results show it is important to consider these limitations when performing an ABC analysis and that studies should perform simulations based on the size and nature of the dataset in order to fully assess the power of the study

    Sex-related variation in compact bone microstructure of the femoral diaphysis in juvenile rabbits

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>While gross morphological changes in the skeleton between males and females are well know, differences between sexes in the histomorphology are less known. It is important to have knowledge on the bone structure of rabbits, as this is a widely used species in biomedical research. A study was performed to evaluate the association between sex and the compact bone morphology of the femoral diaphysis in juvenile rabbits.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Seventeen clinically healthy 2‚Äď3 month-old rabbits (9 females, 8 males) were included in the study. The rabbits were euthanized and the right femur was sampled for analysis. 70‚Äď80 microns thick bone sections of the femoral diaphysis were prepared using standard histological equipment. The qualitative histological characteristics were determined according to internationally accepted classification systems while the quantitative parameters were assessed using the software Scion Image. Areas, perimeters, minimum and maximum diameters of primary osteons' vascular canals, Haversian canals and secondary osteons were measured. Additionally, blood plasma concentrations of progesterone, corticosterone, IGF-I, testosterone and estradiol were analyzed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Qualitative histological characteristics were similar for both sexes. However, variations of certain quantitative histological characteristics were identified. Measured parameters of the primary osteons' vascular canals were higher in males than for females. On the other hand, females had significant higher values of secondary osteons parameters. Differences in Haversian canals parameters were only significant for minimum diameter.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The study demonstrated that quantitative histological characteristics of compact bone tissue of the femoral diaphysis in juvenile rabbits were sex dependent. The variations may be associated with different growth and modeling of the femur through influence by sex-specific steroids, mechanical loads, genetic factors and a multitude of other sources. The results can be applied in experimental studies focusing on comparison of the skeletal biology of the sexes.</p
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