71 research outputs found

    Optimal Coverage Level Choice with Individual and Area Plans of Insurance

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    We theoretically examine a farmer’s coverage demand with area and individual insurance plans as either separate or integrated options. The individual and area losses are assumed to be imperfectly and positively correlated. With actuarially fair rates, the farmer will fully insure with the individual plan and demand no area insurance regardless of the plans being separate or integrated. Under separate plans, free area insurance and the fair rate for individual insurance, area insurance replaces a portion of individual insurance demand. Under integrated plans, free area insurance, and the fair rate for individual insurance, the farmer over-insures using both area and individual plans

    The Value of Third-Party Certification of Preconditioning Claims at Iowa Feeder Cattle Auctions

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    After controlling a variety of feeder cattle characteristics and market and sale conditions in Iowa feeder auctions, the price premiums for preconditioning claims (vaccinations and minimum 30 days of weaning) with and without third-party certification (TPC) are estimated as 6.12/cwtand6.12/cwt and 3.35/cwt, respectively. These premiums differ statistically (p<0.0001), and their difference exceeds the average participation cost of TPC ($1/cwt). This indicates that TPC is valued in the market to credibly signal preconditioning investment under asymmetric information

    Meat Slaughter and Processing Plants’ Traceability Levels: Evidence From Iowa

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    Based on an econometric analysis of the data obtained from a survey of meat plants ( ) in Iowa in summer 2007, this paper identifies the factors impacting the meat plants’ voluntary adoption of forward and backward traceability activities. The results suggest that the ownership type (corporate versus independent) and operations type (slaughtering versus not) matter rather than the size and meat type produced (beef, pork, or poultry) as suggested in the previous surveys. Furthermore, food safety activities appear to be complementary to traceability activities. The findings may assist ongoing regulatory efforts in implementing traceability in U.S. in the near future

    A New Neolithic Settlement in the Upper Tigris Basin in the Light of its Knapped Stone Assemblages: Boncuklu Tarla

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    Neolithic Age sites in the Upper Tigris Basin have significantly increased in number over the past few years, not least because of rescue excavations related to the Ilısu Dam Project undertaken over the last decade. The resultant data has produced significant new information about this hitherto little documented period in the region. Boncuklu Tarla was discovered in 2008 during a field survey, with excavations beginning in 2012. This paper details the knapped stone assemblage from a single season of excavation, material that shed important light on the Pre- Pottery Neolithic B of the Upper Tigris Basin, adding to the information we previously knew from the important site of Çayönü

    Retrospective Analysis of Lymphangitis Carcinomatosa Regarding Primer Tumor Spectrum and Computer Tomography Features

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    INTRODUCTION: Lymphangitis carcinomatosis (LC) is used to describe the metastatic involvement of pulmonary lymphatic canals and perilymphatic connective tissue by primary tumor cells and commonly occurs secondary to primary tumors, mostly adenocarcinomas, originated from breast, lung, gastrointestinal system cancers. Common findings in lung computed tomography (CT) are interlobular septal thickening and increased reticular/reticulonodular density. In this study, we aim to present the primary tumor spectrum and most frequent computed tomography findings of patients with LC. METHODS: In this double-centered study 63 patients, who had lung CT examination due to prediagnosis of LC, were retrospectively investigated. 41 patients with final diagnosis of LC due to findings upon Positron emission tomography/Computed tomography (PET/CT), ultrasonography, CT scan, endoscopic, bronchoscopic and cytopathologic investigations and/or clinical manifestations are ultimately included RESULTS: In 41 patients with LC, lung in 11 cases, esophagus in 7 cases, colon in 6 cases, stomach in 4 cases, pancreas in 3 cases, breast in 2 cases, bladder in 2 cases, thyroid in 2 cases and singly larynx, kidney, prostate and bone marrow in 4 cases were respectively revealed as primary tumor origins. Most frequent lung CT findings were increased reticular/reticulonodular and nodular densities, thickenings of interlobular septa, mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathies, pleural and/or pericardial effusions, atelectasis, ground-glass opacities. Extrapulmonary involvement was detected in 14 patients DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: LC occurs with metastatic involvement of pulmonary lymphatics in patients with primary malignancy, especially adenocarcinomas. In CT, the reticular, reticulonodular, and noduler pattern (most common pulmonary parenchymal changes) and mediastinal lymphadenopathies (LAP) are the most common findgs. Pulmonary CT examination is accepted as the most important radiological modality in diagnosis and follow up of LC