415 research outputs found

    Sediment transport and deposition during extreme sea storm events at the Salerno Bay (Tyrrhenian Sea): comparison of field data with numerical model results

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    Seismic stratigraphy and core litho-stratigraphy in the Salerno Bay inner shelf (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) reveal significant storm deposition episodes over the last 1 ky. Three major events are preserved as decimetre thick silt/sand layers bounded at their base by erosional surfaces and sealed in the muddy marine sequences between 25 and 60 m of depth. Geochronology and chrono-stratigraphy on core sediment point towards a recurrence of major sea storms between 0.1 and 0.3 ky and put the last significant event in the 19th century, when no local meteorological time series is available. A modelling of extreme sea-storms with a return period of about 0.1 ky is here proposed based on historical hindcast and aims at explaining the occurrence of such unusual deep and thick sand deposits in the northern sector of the bay. Results highlight the vulnerability of the northern coast of the Salerno Bay to the south western sea storms which can drive waves up to about 8 m high and wave period of about 13 s. With these conditions an intense combined flow current is formed and might account for winnowing fine sand down to the depth of 40 m at least. The numerical model thus confirms a possible sand transport in the bottom boundary layer due to wave-current interaction and could corroborate the interpretation of the most recent sand layers, included in the cores, as being generated under extreme sea storm conditions

    The geological record of storm events over the last 1000 years in the Salerno Bay (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea): new proxy evidences

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    International audienceThe shallow marine Late Holocene wedge of the northern Salerno Bay shelf (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) discloses the presence of four decimetric shelf-tapering sand beds. Their internal features, depicted by cores analysis and their stratigraphic position, revealed by VHR seismic investigations, inferred sandy layers as being the result of flash deposition, storm controlled, thus episodic. Stratigraphic correlations among cores lead to constrain sandy layers deposition to storm events falling in the 11th, 16th, 19th and 20th centuries. A certain attribution of the most recent event bed to the major cloudburst that hit the Salerno region in 1954A.D. and resulted in a disastrous flood of the Bonea stream, was formerly achieved. A tentative link with two sea-storms that occurred in the 1544A.D. and in the 1879A.D. and well documented by historical sources is here proposed to explain the deposition of the two previous event beds. The deposition of these sandy layers must be related to major storm events, since their preservation in the stratigraphic record is not common. Lithostratigraphic and textural differences between flood and sea-storm emplacement emerge from the study of sandy layers in cores and point to a prevalence of sea-storm deposits in the middle shelf compared to flood deposits. Seismic stratigraphic evidence lead us to suppose that the style of episodic flash deposition has been running on for the last 2-3kyr and is probably linked to a climatic trend of the region

    The composite dataset of the present-day Infralittoral Prograding Wedges (IPWs) in the inner continental shelf of the Campania region (Central-Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

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    This article reports on the dataset gathered following the census of 83 present-day Infralittoral Prograding Wedges (IPWs), surveyed on the inner continental shelf of the Central-Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea. The purpose of the census was to explore their bathymetric range and assess the observational laws governing this variability. The ensued dataset (Campania Region IPW Dataset, CRID) includes geographic, topographic and morpho-bathymetric indices, descriptive of each IPW and more, the exposure of each IPW to wave forcing (Geographical fetch, Effective fetch and extreme significant wave height, HS). In this work, histograms contribute to describe all the variables and highlight the dominant features of each IPW. Location maps univocally links the geographic position of each IPW to the appropriate attribute record in the dataset. Further, thematic maps illustrate eight wave fields obtained by offshore-to-nearshore transformation by as many sea states scenarios with 200-year return period. Such wave fields are used as sources for significant wave height representing wave conditions over each IPW. This dataset could be implemented with new measures at a broader scale, by following analogue procedures for measurements, to enlarge the observational scale on IPWs and improve the numerical models which might eventually derive by the analysis of this dataset

    Controllo climatico sull'accumulo di sedimenti di margine Olocenici e Pleistocenici del Mar Tirreno Orientale

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    Dati di paleovariazioni secolari (PSV) del campo geomagnetico sono stati ottenuti negli ultimi 25.000 anni da diverse carote recuperate nel Golfo di Salerno (Mar Tirreno orientale). Le curve composte di PSV, sono comparate con le “ PSV Master Curves” britanniche e francesi. La comparazione fornisce uno strumento cronologico per determinare un trend di accrescimento del tasso di sedimentazione nell’ Olocene superiore e di variazione ad intervalli di circa 1000 anni nell’ Olocene medio della piattaforma. Inoltre durante i due principali episodi caldi del Mediterraneo a circa 3.3 e tra 6-9 ka sia la piattaforma che la scarpata superiore registrano un aumento con successiva diminuzione del tasso di sedimentazione, mentre ulteriori diminuzioni si registrano, in scarpata superiore, durante l’ ultimo picco Glaciale (LGM) e l’interstadio Bølling-Allerød, suggerendo cosi un’ influenza climatica sui processi di accumulo dei sedimenti del margine del Golfo di Salerno

    Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)

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    A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognised in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with the Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and four climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C AMS calibrations allowed us to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned record from the Ionian sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr included three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and lowering sea level phases of the MIS 4 and 3. The deep-sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core which dates 78 ka cal. BP. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr

    Reflectivity and velocity radar data assimilation for two flash flood events in central Italy: A comparison between 3D and 4D variational methods

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    The aim of this study is to provide an evaluation of the impact of two largely used data assimilation techniques, namely three- and four-dimensional variational data assimilation systems (3D-Var and 4D-Var), on the forecasting of heavy precipitation events using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For this purpose, two flash flood events in central Italy are analysed. The first occurred on September 14, 2012 during an Intensive Observation Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean experiment (HyMeX) campaign, while the other occurred on May 3, 2018. Radial velocity and reflectivity acquired by C-band weather radars at Mt. Midia (central Italy) and San Pietro Capofiume (northern Italy), as well as conventional observations (SYNOP and TEMP), are assimilated into the WRF model to simulate these damaging flash flood events. In order to evaluate the impact of the 3D-Var and 4D-Var assimilation systems on the estimation of short-term quantitative precipitation forecasts, several experiments are carried out using conventional observations with and without radar data. Rainfall evaluation is performed by means of point-by-point and filtering methodologies. The results point to a positive impact of the 4D-Var technique compared to results without assimilation and with 3D-Var experiments. More specifically, the 4D-Var system produces an increase of up to 22% in terms of the Fractions Skill Score compared to 3D-Var for the first flash flood event, while an increase of about 5% is achieved for the second event. The use of a warm start initialization results in a considerable reduction in the spin-up time and a significant improvement in the rainfall forecast, suggesting that the initial precipitation spin-up problem still occurs when using 4D-Var

    Open-slope, translational submarine landslide in a tectonically active volcanic continental margin (Licosa submarine landslide, southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

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    The southern Tyrrhenian continental margin is the product of Pliocene-Recent back-arc extension. An area of approximately 30 km of gentle (about 1.5°) lower slope of the last glacial outer shelf sedimentary wedge in water depths of between 200 and 300 m failed between 14 and 11 ka BP. We approached the landslide by multibeam and sub-bottom profiler surveying, high-resolution multichannel seismics, and coring for stratigraphic and geotechnical purposes. With regard to a slope-stability analysis, we carried out an assessment of the stratigraphic and structural setting of the area of the Licosa landslide. This analysis revealed that the landslide detached along a marker bed that was composed of the tephra layer Y-5 (c. 39 ka). Several previously unknown geological characteristics of the area are likely to have affected the slope stability. These are the basal erosion of the slope in the Licosa Channel, a high sedimentation rate in the sedimentary wedge, earthquake shaking, the volcanic ash nature of the detachment surface, subsurface gas/fluid migration, and lateral porewater flow from the depocentre of wedge to the base of the slope along the high-permeability ash layers. A newly discovered prominent structural discontinuity is identified as the fault whose activity may have triggered the landslide

    Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)

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    A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognised in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with the Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and four climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C AMS calibrations concurred to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr cal. BP. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned one of the Ionian sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr was evaluated including three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and lowering sea level phases of the MIS 4 and MIS 3. The deep sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core which dates 79 ka. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr cal. BP
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