109 research outputs found

    Gene-targeted embryonic stem cells: real-time PCR assay for estimation of the number of neomycin selection cassettes

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    In the preparation of transgenic murine ES cells it is important to verify the construct has a single insertion, because an ectopic neomycin phosphortransferase positive selection cassette (NEO) may cause a position effect. During a recent work, where a knockin SCA28 mouse was prepared, we developed two assays based on Real-Time PCR using both SYBR Green and specific minor groove binder (MGB) probes to evaluate the copies of NEO using the comparative delta-delta Ct method versus the Rpp30 reference gene

    A new case of 13q12.2q13.1 microdeletion syndrome contributes to phenotype delineation.

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    A recently described genetic disorder has been associated with 13q12.3 microdeletion spanning three genes, namely, KATNAL1, LINC00426, and HMGB1. Here, we report a new case with similar clinical features that we have followed from birth to 5 years old. The child carried a complex rearrangement with a double translocation: 46,XX,t(7;13)(p15;q14),t(11;15)(q23;q22). Array-CGH identified a de novo microdeletion at 13q12.2q13.1 spanning 3–3.4 Mb and overlapping 13q12.3 critical region. Clinical features resembling those reported in the literature confirm the existence of a distinct 13q12.3 microdeletion syndrome and provide further evidence that is useful to characterize its phenotypic expression during the 5 years of development

    Increased oral nitric oxide in obstructive sleep apnoea

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    SummaryBackgroundHypoxia and snoring-related mechanical trauma contribute to airway inflammation in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Increased exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), an airway inflammation marker, has been reported in OSA patients. We propose the measure of NO in the oral cavity (oNO) as marker of oropharyngeal inflammation in OSA.MethodsWe compared oNO and FENO of 39 OSA patients with those of 26 mild asthmatics (ASTHMA), 15 patients with chronic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 24 healthy subjects. A special device was used for oNO measurement. Apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, mean and nadir SaO2 were calculated from the polysomnography.ResultsoNO was significantly increased in OSA (104.2 95%CI 80.2–135.5ppb) as compared to ASTHMA (71.9 95%CI 56.3–91.9ppb; p=0.015), CRS (54.4 95%CI 40.2–73.7ppb; p=0.009) and healthy subjects (63.6 95%CI 59–73ppb; p<0.001). oNO was directly related to AHI (r=0.466, p=0.003) and to minutes slept with SaO2 <90% (r=0.471, p=0.011) and it was inversely related to nadirSaO2 (r=−0.393, p=0.018). FENO was highest in asthmatics (40.3 95%CI 32.5–50.1ppb) and only slightly elevated in OSA (23.1 95%CI 19,8–28.3ppb) and CRS (22.8 95%CI 16.8–32.5ppb).ConclusionsThe finding that oral NO is increased in OSA and is related to upper airway obstructive episodes and to hypoxemia severity, strengthens the clinical and pathogenic role of oral inflammation in OSA

    Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis in Fetuses with Major Congenital Malformations Reveals that 24% of Cases Have Pathogenic Deletions/Duplications

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    Karyotyping and aCGH are routinely used to identify genetic determinants of major congenital malformations (MCMs) in fetal deaths or terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis. Pathogenic rearrangements are found with a variable rate of 9-39% for aCGH. We collected 33 fetuses, 9 with a single MCM and 24 with MCMs involving 2-4 organ systems. aCGH revealed copy number variants in 14 out of 33 cases (42%). Eight were classified as pathogenic which account for a detection rate of 24% (8/33) considering fetuses with 1 or more MCMs and 33% (8/24) taking into account fetuses with multiple malformations only. Three of the pathogenic variants were known microdeletion syndromes (22q11.21 deletion, central chromosome 22q11.21 deletion, and TAR syndrome) and 5 were large rearrangements, adding up to >11 Mb per subject and comprising strong phenotype-related genes. One of those was a de novo complex rearrangement, and the remaining 4 duplications and 2 deletions were 130-900 kb in size, containing 1-7 genes, and were classified as variants of unknown clinical significance. Our study confirms aCGH as a powerful technique to ascertain the genetic etiology of fetal major congenital malformations

    A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

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    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (∼660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in a postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. This second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotype
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