37 research outputs found

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    Full text link
    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    No full text
    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4 m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5 m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 yr, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit

    The Impact of FDI and Financial Depth on EU Regional Growth: Income and Spatial Heterogeneity

    Get PDF
    Background and objective: The paper explores the impact of foreign direct investment and financial development on regional growth at the EU regional level for 2005‚Äď2017. Both FDI and financial development are important determinants of the regions‚Äô growth, but not for all EU regions homogeneously. Some EU regions seem to benefit more than others, depending on certain characteristics, which implies that FDI attraction policies need to bear in mind not only country specificities, but also regional specificities, hence confirming the need for developing FDI attraction policies at the subnational level: financial development, capacity building, and Investment Promotion Agencies are key, for example. Methods: The methodology used in the paper relies on a beta-convergence model and on fixed effects estimation. In addition, a GMM difference model accounts for endogeneity. Results: Our empirical findings indicate that, in less wealthy (and more peripheral) regions compared to wealthy regions, FDI productivity spillovers are more significant. In other words, in less wealthy regions, the imitation effect prevails over the competition effect. Conclusions: FDI and financial development are important determinants of regional growth, especially for less developed and peripheral regions. Contribution/value: Financial development is shown to be a crucial determinant for economic growth at the regional level, especially for peripheral regions, which raises essential policy implications, especially for the sake of economic disparities in the EU NUTS 2 regions. In other words, local access to finance, especially to bank credit, plays a crucial role for regional growth, despite the continuous integration of financial markets. Also, there is an income and geographic heterogeneity when it comes to estimating FDI spillovers; therefore, the impact of FDI on growth is not always homo- geneous across territories, which challenges the idea of simple ‚Äúbright‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúdark‚ÄĚ sides to the effects of FDI

    ‚ÄúDigitalisation‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúGreening‚ÄĚ as Components of Technology Upgrading and Sustainable Economic Performance

    No full text
    This paper explores the pace and direction of technological development by using a technology upgrade conceptual and measurement framework. This approach is applied to a sample of 164 economies worldwide between 2002 and 2019. Within the framework of technology upgrading, the paper focuses on digitalisation and ‚Äúgreening‚ÄĚ as its two significant structural features. We explore their relationship with different components of technology upgrading and the relationship between technology upgrading components and different indicators of macroeconomic productivity. We have adopted a longitudinal fixed effects regression method with control for unobserved heterogeneity, clustered standard errors, and time dummies. Our results show that the growth of research and development (R&D) capabilities does not translate into aggregate productivity growth. There is a lack of unconditional relationship between aggregate productivity growth, digitalisation and greening. However, there are ‚Äúlatecomer advantages‚ÄĚ to basic digitalisation for lower middle- and low-income economies and ‚Äúlatecomer liabilities‚ÄĚ in the greening of the economy for upper-middle-income economies. In addition, levels of digitalisation and greening do not correlate, suggesting these two transformation processes are not yet integrated into ‚ÄėICT-assisted greening‚Äô. When we control for income levels, the impact of components of technology upgrading on productivity is isolated to specific components and significant only for some income groups. The absence of a significant simultaneous effects of several components of technology upgrading on productivity points to large transformation failures. We conclude that the role of science and technology systems in spurring sustainable development would require a broad scope for science and technology (S&T) policies, their coordination, and integration with non-innovation policies

    Sectoral digital capabilities and complementarities in shaping young firms’ growth: evidence from Europe

    Get PDF
    We explore how digitalization impacts young firms‚Äô growth. A longitudinal panel analysis of the EU‚Äôs new ventures during 2010‚Äď2018 reveals that digital sectoral capabilities affect young firms‚Äô growth autonomously and via interaction with other sectoral capabilities. Digital sectoral capabilities play an important complementary role in facilitating the upscaling of young firms operating in R&D-intensive contexts as they mature and within environments rich in tangible capital investments. In business contexts characterized by high digital but low human capabilities, young firms struggle to grow, flagging a mismatch of skills‚Äô composition. The effects of digitalization vary depending on the level of competition within each sector. The results on complementarities of sectoral capabilities suggest that horizontal policy solutions favouring specific capabilities in isolation may have limited or counterproductive effects. Instead, policy should target a portfolio of capabilities and consider their complementarities under competitive market structures. Our analysis shows that effective innovation policy should be broadly defined and closely integrated with competition policy

    How intellectual property rights affect innovation in multinational firms

    Get PDF
    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) locate their R&D activities around the world and their performance as innovators depends on this internal geography. But we also expect to see a link between their invention capabilities and how much innovation they actually do. In this paper, we explore whether and in what ways this relationship is influenced by the strength of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection, using a sample of highly innovative multinationals. We show that MNE innovative performance is enhanced when the firm’s R&D activities are based in locations where IPR protection is stronger. Moreover, the difference between the strength of IPR regulation in the home and host economies affects innovation performance, which we find deteriorates as the distance between home and host IPR regimes increases. Notably, MNEs from emerging countries exhibit a competitive edge when operating in highly protective systems thanks to their experience in more challenging environments in knowledge protection and involuntary leakages

    Taxonomies and typologies: starting to reframe economic systems

    No full text
    We propose that it is an important ongoing research agenda to devise a new classification of economic systems based on empirical observation rather than abstract reasoning, and then subject this to the test of empirical validity by exploring whether this taxonomy explains observed behaviour. However, we do not ourselves yet attempt a new classification of economic systems; rather, we draw on the Varieties of Institutional Systems configuration (Fainshmidt, Judge, Aguilera and Smith, 2018) as the basis for our empirical work. We ask whether, holding country-specific institutional factors, sector-specific technological characteristics and ownership-specific firm-level attributes constant, enterprise performance is contingent on the configuration. We test this idea on the World Bank Enterprise Survey of 30,000 firms in more than 57 countries between 2006 and 2016, using a production function methodology. Our proposition that taxonomic systems matter is supported by the evidence. We find that in these understudied economies, systems based on both free market logic and state capitalism achieve equivalent firm-level performance, while systems allowing rent-seeking and cronyism are less efficient. Thus, this new approach allows for system equivalence (equifinality) as well as system superiority

    Delayed colorectal cancer care during covid-19 pandemic (decor-19). Global perspective from an international survey

    No full text
    Background The widespread nature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been unprecedented. We sought to analyze its global impact with a survey on colorectal cancer (CRC) care during the pandemic. Methods The impact of COVID-19 on preoperative assessment, elective surgery, and postoperative management of CRC patients was explored by a 35-item survey, which was distributed worldwide to members of surgical societies with an interest in CRC care. Respondents were divided into two comparator groups: 1) ‚Äėdelay‚Äô group: CRC care affected by the pandemic; 2) ‚Äėno delay‚Äô group: unaltered CRC practice. Results A total of 1,051 respondents from 84 countries completed the survey. No substantial differences in demographics were found between the ‚Äėdelay‚Äô (745, 70.9%) and ‚Äėno delay‚Äô (306, 29.1%) groups. Suspension of multidisciplinary team meetings, staff members quarantined or relocated to COVID-19 units, units fully dedicated to COVID-19 care, personal protective equipment not readily available were factors significantly associated to delays in endoscopy, radiology, surgery, histopathology and prolonged chemoradiation therapy-to-surgery intervals. In the ‚Äėdelay‚Äô group, 48.9% of respondents reported a change in the initial surgical plan and 26.3% reported a shift from elective to urgent operations. Recovery of CRC care was associated with the status of the outbreak. Practicing in COVID-free units, no change in operative slots and staff members not relocated to COVID-19 units were statistically associated with unaltered CRC care in the ‚Äėno delay‚Äô group, while the geographical distribution was not. Conclusions Global changes in diagnostic and therapeutic CRC practices were evident. Changes were associated with differences in health-care delivery systems, hospital‚Äôs preparedness, resources availability, and local COVID-19 prevalence rather than geographical factors. Strategic planning is required to optimize CRC care

    A Service of zbw Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Leibniz Information Centre for Economics New firms entry, labor reallocation, and institutions in transition economies World of Labor Evidence-based policy making

    No full text
    Standard-Nutzungsbedingungen: Die Dokumente auf EconStor d√ľrfen zu eigenen wissenschaftlichen Zwecken und zum Privatgebrauch gespeichert und kopiert werden. Sie d√ľrfen die Dokumente nicht f√ľr √∂ffentliche oder kommerzielle Zwecke vervielf√§ltigen, √∂ffentlich ausstellen, √∂ffentlich zug√§nglich machen, vertreiben oder anderweitig nutzen. Sofern die Verfasser die Dokumente unter Open-Content-Lizenzen (insbesondere CC-Lizenzen) zur Verf√ľgung gestellt haben sollten, gelten abweichend von diesen Nutzungsbedingungen die in der dort genannten Lizenz gew√§hrten Nutzungsrechte
    corecore