777 research outputs found

    Medial Temporal Lobe Tau Aggregation Relates to Divergent Cognitive and Emotional Empathy Abilities in Alzheimer's Disease.

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    BackgroundIn Alzheimer's disease (AD), the gradual accumulation of amyloid-ő≤ (Aő≤) and tau proteins may underlie alterations in empathy.ObjectiveTo assess whether tau aggregation in the medial temporal lobes relates to differences in cognitive empathy (the ability to take others' perspectives) and emotional empathy (the ability to experience others' feelings) in AD.MethodsOlder adults (n‚Ää=‚Ää105) completed molecular Aő≤ positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Sixty-eight of the participants (35 women) were Aő≤ positive and symptomatic with diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment, dementia of the Alzheimer's type, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, or posterior cortical atrophy. The remaining 37 (22 women) were asymptomatic Aő≤ negative healthy older controls. Using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, we compared current levels of informant-rated cognitive empathy (perspective-taking subscale) and emotional empathy (empathic concern subscale) in the Aő≤ positive and negative participants. The Aő≤ positive participants also underwent molecular tau-PET scans, which were used to investigate whether regional tau burden in the bilateral medial temporal lobes related to empathy.ResultsAő≤ positive participants had lower perspective-taking and higher empathic concern than Aő≤ negative healthy controls. Medial temporal tau aggregation in the Aő≤ positive participants had divergent associations with cognitive and emotional empathy. Whereas greater tau burden in the amygdala predicted lower perspective-taking, greater tau burden in the entorhinal cortex predicted greater empathic concern. Tau burden in the parahippocampal cortex did not predict either form of empathy.ConclusionsAcross AD clinical syndromes, medial temporal lobe tau aggregation is associated with lower perspective-taking yet higher empathic concern

    Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) adult study protocol: Rationale, objectives, and design.

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    ImportanceSARS-CoV-2 infection can result in ongoing, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects after the acute phase of infection; termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), or long COVID. The characteristics, prevalence, trajectory and mechanisms of PASC are ill-defined. The objectives of the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Multi-site Observational Study of PASC in Adults (RECOVER-Adult) are to: (1) characterize PASC prevalence; (2) characterize the symptoms, organ dysfunction, natural history, and distinct phenotypes of PASC; (3) identify demographic, social and clinical risk factors for PASC onset and recovery; and (4) define the biological mechanisms underlying PASC pathogenesis.MethodsRECOVER-Adult is a combined prospective/retrospective cohort currently planned to enroll 14,880 adults aged ‚Č•18 years. Eligible participants either must meet WHO criteria for suspected, probable, or confirmed infection; or must have evidence of no prior infection. Recruitment occurs at 86 sites in 33 U.S. states, Washington, DC and Puerto Rico, via facility- and community-based outreach. Participants complete quarterly questionnaires about symptoms, social determinants, vaccination status, and interim SARS-CoV-2 infections. In addition, participants contribute biospecimens and undergo physical and laboratory examinations at approximately 0, 90 and 180 days from infection or negative test date, and yearly thereafter. Some participants undergo additional testing based on specific criteria or random sampling. Patient representatives provide input on all study processes. The primary study outcome is onset of PASC, measured by signs and symptoms. A paradigm for identifying PASC cases will be defined and updated using supervised and unsupervised learning approaches with cross-validation. Logistic regression and proportional hazards regression will be conducted to investigate associations between risk factors, onset, and resolution of PASC symptoms.DiscussionRECOVER-Adult is the first national, prospective, longitudinal cohort of PASC among US adults. Results of this study are intended to inform public health, spur clinical trials, and expand treatment options.RegistrationNCT05172024

    Network Connectivity Alterations across the MAPT Mutation Clinical Spectrum

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    ObjectiveMicrotubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutations cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and novel biomarkers are urgently needed for early disease detection. We used task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping, a promising biomarker, to analyze network connectivity in symptomatic and presymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers.MethodsWe compared cross-sectional fMRI data between 17 symptomatic and 39 presymptomatic carriers and 81 controls with (1) seed-based analyses to examine connectivity within networks associated with the 4 most common MAPT-associated clinical syndromes (ie, salience, corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, and default mode networks) and (2) whole-brain connectivity analyses. We applied K-means clustering to explore connectivity heterogeneity in presymptomatic carriers at baseline. Neuropsychological measures, plasma neurofilament light chain, and gray matter volume were compared at baseline and longitudinally between the presymptomatic subgroups defined by their baseline whole-brain connectivity profiles.ResultsSymptomatic and presymptomatic carriers had connectivity disruptions within MAPT-syndromic networks. Compared to controls, presymptomatic carriers showed regions of connectivity alterations with age. Two presymptomatic subgroups were identified by clustering analysis, exhibiting predominantly either whole-brain hypoconnectivity or hyperconnectivity at baseline. At baseline, these two presymptomatic subgroups did not differ in neuropsychological measures, although the hypoconnectivity subgroup had greater plasma neurofilament light chain levels than controls. Longitudinally, both subgroups showed visual memory decline (vs controls), yet the subgroup with baseline hypoconnectivity also had worsening verbal memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and extensive bilateral mesial temporal gray matter decline.InterpretationNetwork connectivity alterations arise as early as the presymptomatic phase. Future studies will determine whether presymptomatic carriers' baseline connectivity profiles predict symptomatic conversion. ANN NEUROL 2023

    Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) adult study protocol: Rationale, objectives, and design.

    No full text
    IMPORTANCE: SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in ongoing, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects after the acute phase of infection; termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), or long COVID. The characteristics, prevalence, trajectory and mechanisms of PASC are ill-defined. The objectives of the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Multi-site Observational Study of PASC in Adults (RECOVER-Adult) are to: (1) characterize PASC prevalence; (2) characterize the symptoms, organ dysfunction, natural history, and distinct phenotypes of PASC; (3) identify demographic, social and clinical risk factors for PASC onset and recovery; and (4) define the biological mechanisms underlying PASC pathogenesis. METHODS: RECOVER-Adult is a combined prospective/retrospective cohort currently planned to enroll 14,880 adults aged ‚Č•18 years. Eligible participants either must meet WHO criteria for suspected, probable, or confirmed infection; or must have evidence of no prior infection. Recruitment occurs at 86 sites in 33 U.S. states, Washington, DC and Puerto Rico, via facility- and community-based outreach. Participants complete quarterly questionnaires about symptoms, social determinants, vaccination status, and interim SARS-CoV-2 infections. In addition, participants contribute biospecimens and undergo physical and laboratory examinations at approximately 0, 90 and 180 days from infection or negative test date, and yearly thereafter. Some participants undergo additional testing based on specific criteria or random sampling. Patient representatives provide input on all study processes. The primary study outcome is onset of PASC, measured by signs and symptoms. A paradigm for identifying PASC cases will be defined and updated using supervised and unsupervised learning approaches with cross-validation. Logistic regression and proportional hazards regression will be conducted to investigate associations between risk factors, onset, and resolution of PASC symptoms. DISCUSSION: RECOVER-Adult is the first national, prospective, longitudinal cohort of PASC among US adults. Results of this study are intended to inform public health, spur clinical trials, and expand treatment options. REGISTRATION: NCT05172024

    The functional and evolutionary impacts of human-specific deletions in conserved elements

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    Conserved genomic sequences disrupted in humans may underlie uniquely human phenotypic traits. We identified and characterized 10,032 human-specific conserved deletions (hCONDELs). These short (average 2.56 base pairs) deletions are enriched for human brain functions across genetic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic datasets. Using massively parallel reporter assays in six cell types, we discovered 800 hCONDELs conferring significant differences in regulatory activity, half of which enhance rather than disrupt regulatory function. We highlight several hCONDELs with putative human-specific effects on brain development, including HDAC5, CPEB4, and PPP2CA. Reverting an hCONDEL to the ancestral sequence alters the expression of LOXL2 and developmental genes involved in myelination and synaptic function. Our data provide a rich resource to investigate the evolutionary mechanisms driving new traits in humans and other species

    Uncertainty Estimation using the Local Lipschitz for Deep Learning Image Reconstruction Models

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    The use of supervised deep neural network approaches has been investigated to solve inverse problems in all domains, especially radiology where imaging technologies are at the heart of diagnostics. However, in deployment, these models are exposed to input distributions that are widely shifted from training data, due in part to data biases or drifts. It becomes crucial to know whether a given input lies outside the training data distribution before relying on the reconstruction for diagnosis. The goal of this work is three-fold: (i) demonstrate use of the local Lipshitz value as an uncertainty estimation threshold for determining suitable performance, (ii) provide method for identifying out-of-distribution (OOD) images where the model may not have generalized, and (iii) use the local Lipschitz values to guide proper data augmentation through identifying false positives and decrease epistemic uncertainty. We provide results for both MRI reconstruction and CT sparse view to full view reconstruction using AUTOMAP and UNET architectures due to it being pertinent in the medical domain that reconstructed images remain diagnostically accurate

    A genomic timescale for placental mammal evolution.

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    The precise pattern and timing of speciation events that gave rise to all living placental mammals remain controversial. We provide a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of genetic variation across an alignment of 241 placental mammal genome assemblies, addressing prior concerns regarding limited genomic sampling across species. We compared neutral genome-wide phylogenomic signals using concatenation and coalescent-based approaches, interrogated phylogenetic variation across chromosomes, and analyzed extensive catalogs of structural variants. Interordinal relationships exhibit relatively low rates of phylogenomic conflict across diverse datasets and analytical methods. Conversely, X-chromosome versus autosome conflicts characterize multiple independent clades that radiated during the Cenozoic. Genomic time trees reveal an accumulation of cladogenic events before and immediately after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, implying important roles for Cretaceous continental vicariance and the K-Pg extinction in the placental radiation

    Relating enhancer genetic variation across mammals to complex phenotypes using machine learning

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    Protein-coding differences between species often fail to explain phenotypic diversity, suggesting the involvement of genomic elements that regulate gene expression such as enhancers. Identifying associations between enhancers and phenotypes is challenging because enhancer activity can be tissue-dependent and functionally conserved despite low sequence conservation. We developed the Tissue-Aware Conservation Inference Toolkit (TACIT) to associate candidate enhancers with species' phenotypes using predictions from machine learning models trained on specific tissues. Applying TACIT to associate motor cortex and parvalbumin-positive interneuron enhancers with neurological phenotypes revealed dozens of enhancer-phenotype associations, including brain size-associated enhancers that interact with genes implicated in microcephaly or macrocephaly. TACIT provides a foundation for identifying enhancers associated with the evolution of any convergently evolved phenotype in any large group of species with aligned genomes

    The contribution of historical processes to contemporary extinction risk in placental mammals

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    Species persistence can be influenced by the amount, type, and distribution of diversity across the genome, suggesting a potential relationship between historical demography and resilience. In this study, we surveyed genetic variation across single genomes of 240 mammals that compose the Zoonomia alignment to evaluate how historical effective population size (Ne) affects heterozygosity and deleterious genetic load and how these factors may contribute to extinction risk. We find that species with smaller historical Ne carry a proportionally larger burden of deleterious alleles owing to long-term accumulation and fixation of genetic load and have a higher risk of extinction. This suggests that historical demography can inform contemporary resilience. Models that included genomic data were predictive of species' conservation status, suggesting that, in the absence of adequate census or ecological data, genomic information may provide an initial risk assessment
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