173,870 research outputs found

    The vanishing of the primary emission region in PKS 1510-089

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    International audienceIn July 2021, PKS 1510-089 exhibited a significant flux drop in the high-energy gamma-ray (by a factor 10) and optical (by a factor 5) bands and remained in this low state throughout 2022. Similarly, the optical polarization in the source vanished, resulting in the optical spectrum being fully explained through the steady flux of the accretion disk and the broad-line region. Unlike the aforementioned bands, the very-high-energy gamma-ray and X-ray fluxes did not exhibit a significant flux drop from year to year. This suggests that the steady-state very-high-energy gamma-ray and X-ray fluxes originate from a different emission region than the vanished parts of the high-energy gamma-ray and optical jet fluxes. The latter component has disappeared through either a swing of the jet away from the line-of-sight or a significant drop in the photon production efficiency of the jet close to the black hole. Either change could become visible in high-resolution radio images

    The association of spirometric small airways obstruction with respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and quality of life: Results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study

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    Background: Spirometric small airways obstruction (SAO) is common in the general population. Whether spirometric SAO is associated with respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and quality of life (QoL) is unknown. Methods: Using data from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study (N = 21,594), we defined spirometric SAO as the mean forced expiratory flow rate between 25 and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN) or the forced expiratory volume in 3 s to FVC ratio (FEV3/FVC) less than the LLN. We analysed data on respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and QoL collected using standardised questionnaires. We assessed the associations with spirometric SAO using multivariable regression models, and pooled site estimates using random effects meta-analysis. We conducted identical analyses for isolated spirometric SAO (i.e. with FEV1/FVC ≄ LLN). Results: Almost a fifth of the participants had spirometric SAO (19% for FEF25-75; 17% for FEV3/FVC). Using FEF25-75, spirometric SAO was associated with dyspnoea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.77–2.70), chronic cough (OR = 2.56, 95% CI 2.08–3.15), chronic phlegm (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 1.77–4.05), wheeze (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 2.50–3.40) and cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.52), but not hypertension or diabetes. Spirometric SAO was associated with worse physical and mental QoL. These associations were similar for FEV3/FVC. Isolated spirometric SAO (10% for FEF25-75; 6% for FEV3/FVC), was also associated with respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Spirometric SAO is associated with respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and QoL. Consideration should be given to the measurement of FEF25-75 and FEV3/FVC, in addition to traditional spirometry parameters

    Validation of the Scientific Program for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

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    International audienceThe Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) was designed to conduct a survey covering 14,000 deg2^2 over five years to constrain the cosmic expansion history through precise measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The scientific program for DESI was evaluated during a five month Survey Validation (SV) campaign before beginning full operations. This program produced deep spectra of tens of thousands of objects from each of the stellar (MWS), bright galaxy (BGS), luminous red galaxy (LRG), emission line galaxy (ELG), and quasar target classes. These SV spectra were used to optimize redshift distributions, characterize exposure times, determine calibration procedures, and assess observational overheads for the five-year program. In this paper, we present the final target selection algorithms, redshift distributions, and projected cosmology constraints resulting from those studies. We also present a `One-Percent survey' conducted at the conclusion of Survey Validation covering 140 deg2^2 using the final target selection algorithms with exposures of a depth typical of the main survey. The Survey Validation indicates that DESI will be able to complete the full 14,000 deg2^2 program with spectroscopically-confirmed targets from the MWS, BGS, LRG, ELG, and quasar programs with total sample sizes of 7.2, 13.8, 7.46, 15.7, and 2.87 million, respectively. These samples will allow exploration of the Milky Way halo, clustering on all scales, and BAO measurements with a statistical precision of 0.28% over the redshift interval z<1.1z<1.1, 0.39% over the redshift interval 1.1<z<1.91.1<z<1.9, and 0.46% over the redshift interval 1.9<z<3.51.9<z<3.5

    Search for gravitational-lensing signatures in the full third observing run of the LIGO-Virgo network