426 research outputs found

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

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    International audienceEffectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science::A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Suicidality among older Australian adults

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    Background: Vulnerability to suicidality is a concern among older adults, particularly as this proportion of the population is growing. Determining what factors contribute to suicidality will help to create a framework for understanding and assessing suicidal risk among older adults and developing effective treatments. This study examined suicidality among older Australian adults. Methods: This study forms part of a larger study to trial a survey to collect cross-sectional data on the mental and physical health of older Australian adults across time. One hundred and fourteen Australian residents aged 65 years and over completed an anonymous survey online or by returning a paper-and-pencil version of the survey by post. The survey took approximately 25 min to complete and comprised of (1) sociodemographic questions (e.g., age, gender, education), (2) validated questionnaires measuring depression, general anxiety, psychological distress, insomnia, substance dependence, problem gambling, and stress, and (3) mental and physical health and wellbeing items (e.g., religiosity, assistance with daily tasks, and mental health service usage in the last 12-months). The dependent variable, suicidality, was measured by asking participants whether they had ever seriously thought about committing suicide. Results: Associations with suicidality were analyzed using Chi-squares and independent samples t-tests. The results found suicidality to be significantly associated with lower levels of satisfaction with the frequency of seeing and/or communicating with friends, and inadequate levels of community engagement. Conclusion: The results of this survey reinforce the importance of social connectedness as a central and significant protective factor against suicidality among older adults. Copyright © 2023 Klein, Shandley, McLaren, Clinnick and Nguyen

    Transforming global approaches to chronic disease prevention and management across the lifespan: integrating genomics, behavior change and digital health solutions

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    Chronic illnesses are a major threat to global population health through the lifespan into older age. Despite world-wide public health goals, there has been a steady increase in chronic and non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders) and strong growth in mental health disorders. In 2010, 67% of deaths worldwide were due to chronic diseases and this increased to 74% in 2019, with accelerated growth in the COVID-19 era and its aftermath. Ageing and wellbeing across the lifespan are positively impacted by the presence of effective prevention and management of chronic illness that can enhance population health. This paper provides a short overview of the journey to this current situation followed by discussion of how we may better address what the World Health Organization has termed the ‚Äútsunami of chronic diseases‚ÄĚ. In this paper we advocate for the development, validation, and subsequent deployment of integrated: 1. Polygenic and multifactorial risk prediction tools to screen for those at future risk of chronic disease and those with undiagnosed chronic disease.2. Advanced preventive, behaviour change and chronic disease management to maximise population health and wellbeing.3. Digital health systems to support greater efficiencies in population-scale health prevention and intervention programs.It is argued that each of these actions individually has an emerging evidence base. However, there has been limited research to date concerning the combined population-level health effects of their integration. We outline the conceptual framework within which we are planning and currently conducting studies to investigate the effects of their integration.<br/

    A Fully Automated Self-help Biopsychosocial Transdiagnostic Digital Intervention to Reduce Anxiety and/or Depression and Improve Emotional Regulation and Well-being: Pre‚ÄďFollow-up Single-Arm Feasibility Trial

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    BackgroundAnxiety disorders and depression are prevalent disorders with high comorbidity, leading to greater chronicity and severity of symptoms. Given the accessibility to treatment issues, more evaluation is needed to assess the potential benefits of fully automated self-help transdiagnostic digital interventions. Innovating beyond the current transdiagnostic one-size-fits-all shared mechanistic approach may also lead to further improvements. ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to explore the preliminary effectiveness and acceptability of a new fully automated self-help biopsychosocial transdiagnostic digital intervention (Life Flex) aimed at treating anxiety and/or depression, as well as improving emotional regulation; emotional, social, and psychological well-being; optimism; and health-related quality of life. MethodsThis was a real-world pre-during-post-follow-up feasibility trial design evaluation of Life Flex. Participants were assessed at the preintervention time point (week 0), during intervention (weeks 3 and 5), at the postintervention time point (week 8), and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups (weeks 12 and 20, respectively). ResultsThe results provided early support for the Life Flex program in reducing anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9), psychological distress (Kessler 6), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotional Regulation 36) and increasing emotional, social, and psychological well-being (Mental Health Continuum‚ÄĒShort Form); optimism (Revised Life Orientation Test); and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Utility Index and Health Rating; all false discovery rate [FDR]<.001). Large within-group treatment effect sizes (range |d|=0.82 to 1.33) were found for most variables from pre- to postintervention assessments and at the 1- and 3-month follow-up. The exceptions were medium treatment effect sizes for EQ-5D-3L Utility Index (range Cohen d=‚ąí0.50 to ‚ąí0.63) and optimism (range Cohen d=‚ąí0.72 to ‚ąí0.79) and small-to-medium treatment effect size change for EQ-5D-3L Health Rating (range Cohen d=‚ąí0.34 to ‚ąí0.58). Changes across all outcome variables were generally strongest for participants with preintervention clinical comorbid anxiety and depression presentations (range |d|=0.58 to 2.01) and weakest for participants presenting with nonclinical anxiety and/or depressive symptoms (|d|=0.05 to 0.84). Life Flex was rated as acceptable at the postintervention time point, and participants indicated that they enjoyed the transdiagnostic program and biological, wellness, and lifestyle-focused content and strategies. ConclusionsGiven the paucity of evidence on fully automated self-help transdiagnostic digital interventions for anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and general treatment accessibility issues, this study provides preliminary support for biopsychosocial transdiagnostic interventions, such as Life Flex, as a promising future mental health service delivery gap filler. Following large-scale, randomized controlled trials, the potential benefits of fully automated self-help digital health programs, such as Life Flex, could be considerable. Trial RegistrationAustralian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000480583; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=36800

    Lifestyle management of hypertension: International Society of Hypertension position paper endorsed by the World Hypertension League and European Society of Hypertension

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    Hypertension, defined as persistently elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) &gt;140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at least 90 mmHg (International Society of Hypertension guidelines), affects over 1.5 billion people worldwide. Hypertension is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (e.g. coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and death. An international panel of experts convened by the International Society of Hypertension College of Experts compiled lifestyle management recommendations as first-line strategy to prevent and control hypertension in adulthood. We also recommend that lifestyle changes be continued even when blood pressure-lowering medications are prescribed. Specific recommendations based on literature evidence are summarized with advice to start these measures early in life, including maintaining a healthy body weight, increased levels of different types of physical activity, healthy eating and drinking, avoidance and cessation of smoking and alcohol use, management of stress and sleep levels. We also discuss the relevance of specific approaches including consumption of sodium, potassium, sugar, fibre, coffee, tea, intermittent fasting as well as integrated strategies to implement these recommendations using, for example, behaviour change-related technologies and digital tools

    Efficacy of a digital mental health biopsychosocial transdiagnostic intervention with or without therapist assistance for adults with anxiety and depression : adaptive randomized controlled trial

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    Background: Digital mental health (DMH) interventions incorporating elements that adapt to the evolving needs of consumers have the potential to further our understanding of the optimal intensity of therapist assistance and inform stepped-care models. Objective: The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of a transdiagnostic biopsychosocial DMH program, with or without therapist assistance for adults with subthreshold symptoms or a diagnosis of anxiety or depression. Methods: In a randomized adaptive clinical trial design, all participants had access to the DMH program, with eligibility to have their program augmented with therapist assistance determined by program engagement or symptom severity. Participants who met stepped-care criteria were randomized to have their treatment program augmented with either low-intensity (10 min/week of video chat support for 7 weeks) or high-intensity (50 min/week of video chat support for 7 weeks) therapist assistance. A total of 103 participants (mean age 34.17, SD 10.50 years) were assessed before (week 0), during (weeks 3 and 6), and after the intervention (week 9) and at the 3-month follow-up (week 21). The effects of 3 treatment conditions (DMH program only, DMH program+low-intensity therapist assistance, and DMH program+high-intensity therapist assistance) on changes in the 2 primary outcomes of anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale [GAD-7]) and depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) were assessed using the Cohen d, reliable change index, and mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results: There were no substantial differences in the outcome measures among intervention conditions. However, there were significant time effect changes in most outcomes over time. All 3 intervention conditions demonstrated strong and significant treatment effect changes in GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores, with absolute Cohen d values ranging from 0.82 to 1.79 (all P<.05). The mixed-effects models revealed that, in the Life Flex program‚Äďonly condition at week 3, mean GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores significantly decreased from baseline by 3.54 and 4.38 (all P<.001), respectively. At weeks 6, 9, and 21, GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores significantly decreased from baseline by at least 6 and 7 points (all P<.001), respectively. Nonresponders at week 3 who were stepped up to therapist assistance increased program engagement and treatment response. At the postintervention time point and 3-month follow-up, 67% (44/65) and 69% (34/49) of the participants, respectively, no longer met diagnostic criteria for anxiety or depression. Conclusions: The findings highlight that early detection of low engagement and non‚Äďtreatment response presents an opportunity to effectively intervene by incorporating an adaptive design. Although the study findings indicate that therapist assistance was no more effective than the DMH intervention program alone for reducing symptoms of anxiety or depression, the data highlight the potential influence of participant selection bias and participant preferences within stepped-care treatment models. ¬©Brooke Andrews, Britt Klein, Huy Van Nguyen, Denise Corboy, Suzanne McLaren, Shaun Watson
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