119 research outputs found

    Evidence for a wide extra-astrocytic distribution of S100B in human brain

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    BACKGROUND: S100B is considered an astrocytic in-situ marker and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum are often used as biomarker for astrocytic damage or dysfunction. However, studies on S100B in the human brain are rare. Thus, the distribution of S100B was studied by immunohistochemistry in adult human brains to evaluate its cell-type specificity. RESULTS: Contrary to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which selectively labels astrocytes and shows only faint ependymal immunopositivity, a less uniform staining pattern was seen in the case of S100B. Cells with astrocytic morphology were primarily stained by S100B in the human cortex, while only 20% (14–30%) or 14% (7–35%) of all immunopositive cells showed oligodendrocytic morphology in the dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal cortices, respectively. In the white matter, however, most immunostained cells resembled oligodendrocytes [frontal: 75% (57–85%); temporal: 73% (59–87%); parietal: 79% (62–89%); corpus callosum: 93% (86–97%)]. S100B was also found in ependymal cells, the choroid plexus epithelium, vascular endothelial cells, lymphocytes, and several neurones. Anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) immunolabelling showed an association of S100B with myelinated fibres, whereas GFAP double staining revealed a distinct subpopulation of cells with astrocytic morphology, which solely expressed S100B but not GFAP. Some of these cells showed co-localization of S100B and A2B5 and may be characterized as O2A glial progenitor cells. However, S100B was not detected in microglial cells, as revealed by double-immunolabelling with HLA-DR. CONCLUSION: S100B is localized in many neural cell-types and is less astrocyte-specific than GFAP. These are important results in order to avoid misinterpretation in the identification of normal and pathological cell types in situ and in clinical studies since S100B is continuously used as an astrocytic marker in animal models and various human diseases

    Regionally Specific White Matter Disruptions of Fornix and Cingulum in Schizophrenia

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    Limbic circuitry disruptions have been implicated in the psychopathology and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, which may involve white matter disruptions of the major tracts of the limbic system, including the fornix and the cingulum. Our study aimed to investigate regionally specific abnormalities of the fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We determined the fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) profiles along the fornix and cingulum tracts using a fibertracking technique and a brain mapping algorithm, the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM), in the DTI scans of 33 patients with schizophrenia and 31 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia showed reduction in FA and increase in RD in bilateral fornix, and increase in RD in left anterior cingulum when compared to healthy controls. In addition, tract-based analysis revealed specific loci of these white matter differences in schizophrenia, that is, FA reductions and AD and RD increases occur in the region of the left fornix further from the hippocampus, FA reductions and RD increases occur in the rostral portion of the left anterior cingulum, and RD and AD increases occur in the anterior segment of the left middle cingulum. In patients with schizophrenia, decreased FA in the specific loci of the left fornix and increased AD in the right cingulum adjoining the hippocampus correlated with greater severity of psychotic symptoms. These findings support precise disruptions of limbic-cortical integrity in schizophrenia and disruption of these structural networks may contribute towards the neural basis underlying the syndrome of schizophrenia and clinical symptomatology

    Examining Ecological Constraints on the Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment Via Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

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    Parents\u2019 attachment representations and child\u2013parent attachment have been shown to be associated, but these associations vary across populations (Verhage et al., 2016). The current study examined whether ecological factors may explain variability in the strength of intergenerational transmission of attachment, using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Analyses on 4,396 parent\u2013child dyads (58 studies, child age 11\u201396 months) revealed a combined effect size of r =.29. IPD meta-analyses revealed that effect sizes for the transmission of autonomous-secure representations to secure attachments were weaker under risk conditions and weaker in adolescent parent\u2013child dyads, whereas transmission was stronger for older children. Findings support the ecological constraints hypothesis on attachment transmission. Implications for attachment theory and the use of IPD meta-analysis are discusse

    Conceptual comparison of constructs as first step in data harmonization: Parental sensitivity, child temperament, and social support as illustrations

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    This article presents a strategy for the initial step of data harmonization in Individual Participant Data syntheses, i.e., making decisions as to which measures operationalize the constructs of interest - and which do not. This step is vital in the process of data harmonization, because a study can only be as good as its measures. If the construct validity of the measures is in question, study results are questionable as well. Our proposed strategy for data harmonization consists of three steps. First, a unitary construct is defined based on the existing literature, preferably on the theoretical framework surrounding the construct. Second, the various instruments used to measure the construct are evaluated as operationalizations of this construct, and retained or excluded based on this evaluation. Third, the scores of the included measures are recoded on the same metric. We illustrate the use of this method with three example constructs focal to the Collaboration on Attachment Transmission Synthesis (CATS) study: parental sensitivity, child temperament, and social support. This process description may aid researchers in their data pooling studies, filling a gap in the literature on the first step of data harmonization. • Data harmonization in studies using combined datasets is of vital importance for the validity of the study results. • We have developed and illustrated a strategy on how to define a unitary construct and evaluate whether instruments are operationalizations of this construct as the initial step in the harmonization process. • This strategy is a transferable and reproducible method to apply to the data harmonization process

    Psychosocial Treatment of Children in Foster Care: A Review

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    A substantial number of children in foster care exhibit psychiatric difficulties. Recent epidemiologi-cal and historical trends in foster care, clinical findings about the adjustment of children in foster care, and adult outcomes are reviewed, followed by a description of current approaches to treatment and extant empirical support. Available interventions for these children can be categorized as either symptom-focused or systemic, with empirical support for specific methods ranging from scant to substantial. Even with treatment, behavioral and emotional problems often persist into adulthood, resulting in poor functional outcomes. We suggest that self-regulation may be an important mediat-ing factor in the appearance of emotional and behavioral disturbance in these children