3 research outputs found

    GNSS Radio Frequency Interference Monitoring from LEO Satellites: An In-Laboratory Prototype

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    The disruptive effect of radio frequency interference (RFI) on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals is well known, and in the last four decades, many have been investigated as countermeasures. Recently, low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites have been looked at as a good opportunity for GNSS RFI monitoring, and the last five years have seen the proliferation of many commercial and academic initiatives. In this context, this paper proposes a new spaceborne system to detect, classify, and localize terrestrial GNSS RFI signals, particularly jamming and spoofing, for civil use. This paper presents the implementation of the RFI detection software module to be hosted on a nanosatellite. The whole development work is described, including the selection of both the target platform and the algorithms, the implementation, the detection performance evaluation, and the computational load analysis. Two are the implemented RFI detectors: the chi-square goodness-of-fit (GoF) algorithm for non-GNSS-like interference, e.g., chirp jamming, and the snapshot acquisition for GNSS-like interference, e.g., spoofing. Preliminary testing results in the presence of jamming and spoofing signals reveal promising detection capability in terms of sensitivity and highlight room to optimize the computational load, particularly for the snapshot-acquisition-based RFI detector

    Nanosecond-Level Resilient GNSS-Based Time Synchronization in Telecommunication Networks Through WR-PTP HA

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    In recent years, the push for accurate and reliable time synchronization has gained momentum in critical infrastructures, especially in telecommunication networks, driven by the demands of 5G new radio and next-generation technologies that rely on submicrosecond timing accuracy for radio access network (RAN) nodes. Traditionally, atomic clocks paired with global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) timing receivers have served as grand master clocks, supported by dedicated network timing protocols. However, this approach struggles to scale with the increasing numbers of RAN intermediate nodes. To address scalability and high-accuracy synchronization, a more cost-effective and capillary solution is needed. Standalone GNSS timing receivers leverage ubiquitous satellite signals to offer stable timing signals but can expose networks to radio-frequency attacks due to the consequent proliferation of GNSS antennas. Our research introduces a solution by combining the white rabbit precise time protocol with a backup timing source logic acting in case of timing disruptive attacks against GNSS for resilient GNSS-based network synchronization. It has been rigorously tested against common jamming, meaconing, and spoofing attacks, consistently maintaining 2 ns relative synchronization accuracy between nodes, all without the need for an atomic clock

    Changes in symptomatology, reinfection, and transmissibility associated with the SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7: an ecological study

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    Background The SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 was first identified in December, 2020, in England. We aimed to investigate whether increases in the proportion of infections with this variant are associated with differences in symptoms or disease course, reinfection rates, or transmissibility. Methods We did an ecological study to examine the association between the regional proportion of infections with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant and reported symptoms, disease course, rates of reinfection, and transmissibility. Data on types and duration of symptoms were obtained from longitudinal reports from users of the COVID Symptom Study app who reported a positive test for COVID-19 between Sept 28 and Dec 27, 2020 (during which the prevalence of B.1.1.7 increased most notably in parts of the UK). From this dataset, we also estimated the frequency of possible reinfection, defined as the presence of two reported positive tests separated by more than 90 days with a period of reporting no symptoms for more than 7 days before the second positive test. The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infections with the B.1.1.7 variant across the UK was estimated with use of genomic data from the COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium and data from Public Health England on spike-gene target failure (a non-specific indicator of the B.1.1.7 variant) in community cases in England. We used linear regression to examine the association between reported symptoms and proportion of B.1.1.7. We assessed the Spearman correlation between the proportion of B.1.1.7 cases and number of reinfections over time, and between the number of positive tests and reinfections. We estimated incidence for B.1.1.7 and previous variants, and compared the effective reproduction number, Rt, for the two incidence estimates. Findings From Sept 28 to Dec 27, 2020, positive COVID-19 tests were reported by 36 920 COVID Symptom Study app users whose region was known and who reported as healthy on app sign-up. We found no changes in reported symptoms or disease duration associated with B.1.1.7. For the same period, possible reinfections were identified in 249 (0·7% [95% CI 0·6–0·8]) of 36 509 app users who reported a positive swab test before Oct 1, 2020, but there was no evidence that the frequency of reinfections was higher for the B.1.1.7 variant than for pre-existing variants. Reinfection occurrences were more positively correlated with the overall regional rise in cases (Spearman correlation 0·56–0·69 for South East, London, and East of England) than with the regional increase in the proportion of infections with the B.1.1.7 variant (Spearman correlation 0·38–0·56 in the same regions), suggesting B.1.1.7 does not substantially alter the risk of reinfection. We found a multiplicative increase in the Rt of B.1.1.7 by a factor of 1·35 (95% CI 1·02–1·69) relative to pre-existing variants. However, Rt fell below 1 during regional and national lockdowns, even in regions with high proportions of infections with the B.1.1.7 variant. Interpretation The lack of change in symptoms identified in this study indicates that existing testing and surveillance infrastructure do not need to change specifically for the B.1.1.7 variant. In addition, given that there was no apparent increase in the reinfection rate, vaccines are likely to remain effective against the B.1.1.7 variant. Funding Zoe Global, Department of Health (UK), Wellcome Trust, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK), National Institute for Health Research (UK), Medical Research Council (UK), Alzheimer's Society