255 research outputs found

    Diet quality in persons with and without depressive and anxiety disorders

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    Objective: This study examines the association of depressive and anxiety disorders and their clinical characteristics (disorder type, severity, chronicity and clinical subtypes) with diet quality. Method: Data from 1634 adults (controls = 336, current disorder = 414, remitted = 886) were sourced from the 9-year follow-up of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Depressive and anxiety disorders were established with Composite International Diagnostic Interviews. Severity was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), Fear Questionnaire and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Chronicity was measured with life-chart interviews expressed as percentage time with a disorder(s). Diet quality was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Results: Diet quality was significantly worse among subjects with a current disorder than among healthy controls. Subdividing subjects showed that those with concurrent depressive and anxiety disorders had the lowest diet quality score (MDS: β = −0.41 per SD, 95% Confidence interval (95%CI) = -0.60, −0.21; AHEI β = −0.22 per SD 95% CI = −0.42,-0.03). More chronic depression or anxiety disorders and increased severity in all participants showed a dose-response association with poorer diet quality. There was no distinct pattern between IDS items related to depression subtypes and diet quality. Conclusion: Diet quality is poorer in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders; in particular in those with comorbidity. The more severe and chronic the symptoms, the poorer the diet quality. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the direction of the relationship of depressive and anxiety disorders with diet quality and to examine whether improving diet quality could improve mental health

    Integrating proteomic, sociodemographic and clinical data to predict future depression diagnosis in subthreshold symptomatic individuals

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    Funder: Stanley Medical Research Institute (SMRI); doi: https://doi.org/10.13039/100007123Abstract: Individuals with subthreshold depression have an increased risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to predict the probability of MDD onset in subthreshold individuals, based on their proteomic, sociodemographic and clinical data. To this end, we analysed 198 features (146 peptides representing 77 serum proteins (measured using MRM-MS), 22 sociodemographic factors and 30 clinical features) in 86 first-episode MDD patients (training set patient group), 37 subthreshold individuals who developed MDD within two or four years (extrapolation test set patient group), and 86 subthreshold individuals who did not develop MDD within four years (shared reference group). To ensure the development of a robust and reproducible model, we applied feature extraction and model averaging across a set of 100 models obtained from repeated application of group LASSO regression with ten-fold cross-validation on the training set. This resulted in a 12-feature prediction model consisting of six serum proteins (AACT, APOE, APOH, FETUA, HBA and PHLD), three sociodemographic factors (body mass index, childhood trauma and education level) and three depressive symptoms (sadness, fatigue and leaden paralysis). Importantly, the model demonstrated a fair performance in predicting future MDD diagnosis of subthreshold individuals in the extrapolation test set (AUC = 0.75), which involved going beyond the scope of the model. These findings suggest that it may be possible to detect disease indications in subthreshold individuals up to four years prior to diagnosis, which has important clinical implications regarding the identification and treatment of high-risk individuals

    Long-term glucocorticoids in relation to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease:A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    The striking link of Cushing's syndrome with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) suggests that long-term exposure to extremely high cortisol levels catalyzes cardiometabolic deterioration. However, it remained unclear whether the findings from the extreme glucocorticoid overabundance observed in Cushing's syndrome could be translated into more subtle variations in long-term glucocorticoid levels among the general population, for example, due to chronic stress. Here, we performed a systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42023425541) of evidence regarding the role of subtle variations in long-term biological stress, measured as levels of scalp hair cortisol (HairF) and cortisone (HairE), in the context of MetS and CVD in adults. We also performed a meta-analysis on the cross-sectional difference in HairF levels between individuals with versus without CVD. Seven studies were included regarding MetS, sixteen regarding CVD, and one regarding both. Most articles indicated a strong, consistent cross-sectional association of higher HairF and HairE levels with CVD, which was confirmed by our meta-analysis for HairF (eight studies, SMD = 0.48, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 0.16–0.79, p = 0.0095). Moreover, these relationships appear largely independent of standard risk factors. Age seems relevant as the effect seems stronger in younger individuals. Results regarding the associations of HairF and HairE with MetS were inconsistent. Altogether, long-term biological stress, measured as HairF and HairE, is associated with the presence of CVD, and less consistently with MetS. Prospective studies need to evaluate the directionality of this relationship and determine whether HairF and HairE can be used in addition to standard risk factors in predicting future cardiometabolic deterioration.</p

    A tangled start:The link between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and relationships in adulthood

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    Background: Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment are more likely to experience distrust, feel distant from others, and develop an insecure attachment style which may also affect relationship quality. Furthermore, childhood maltreatment has been linked to several mental health problems; including, depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependance severity, that are also known to relationship quality. Objective: The current study was designed to investigate to what extent childhood maltreatment is associated with adult insecure attachment and intimate relationships and whether this association is mediated by psychopathology. Participants and Method: In a study comprised of 2035 adults aged 18-65, we investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with insecure adult attachment styles and the quality of intimate relationships and whether this was mediated by depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence severity (based on repeated assessments of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report, Beck Anxiety Index, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test respectively). Results: The path model showed an acceptable fit, RMSEA = 0.05, and suggested full mediation of the association of childhood maltreatment with quality of intimate relationships by depression severity and a) anxious attachment (13 = -4.0 * 10-2; 95% CI = -5.5 * 10-2, -2.7 * 10-2) and b) avoidant attachment (13 = -7.2 * 10-2; 95% CI = -9.6 * 10-2, -4.9 * 10-2). Anxiety and alcohol dependence severity were not significant mediators. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is associated with a lower quality of intimate relationships, which is fully mediated by depression severity and insecure attachment styles.Prevention, Population and Disease management (PrePoD)Public Health and primary car

    A multivariate genome-wide association study of psycho-cardiometabolic multimorbidity

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    Coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and depression are among the leading causes of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial degree of multimorbidity, which may be explained by shared genetic influences. However, research exploring the presence of pleiotropic variants and genes common to CAD, T2D and depression is lacking. The present study aimed to identify genetic variants with effects on cross-trait liability to psycho-cardiometabolic diseases. We used genomic structural equation modelling to perform a multivariate genome-wide association study of multimorbidity (Neffective = 562,507), using summary statistics from univariate genome-wide association studies for CAD, T2D and major depression. CAD was moderately genetically correlated with T2D (rg = 0.39, P = 2e-34) and weakly correlated with depression (rg = 0.13, P = 3e-6). Depression was weakly correlated with T2D (rg = 0.15, P = 4e-15). The latent multimorbidity factor explained the largest proportion of variance in T2D (45%), followed by CAD (35%) and depression (5%). We identified 11 independent SNPs associated with multimorbidity and 18 putative multimorbidity-associated genes. We observed enrichment in immune and inflammatory pathways. A greater polygenic risk score for multimorbidity in the UK Biobank (N = 306,734) was associated with the co-occurrence of CAD, T2D and depression (OR per standard deviation = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.74–2.10, relative to the healthy group), validating this latent multimorbidity factor. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested potentially causal effects of BMI, body fat percentage, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, fasting insulin, income, insomnia, and childhood maltreatment. These findings advance our understanding of multimorbidity suggesting common genetic pathways.</p

    Working definitions, subjective and objective assessments and experimental paradigms in a study exploring social withdrawal in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease

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    Social withdrawal is one of the first and common signs of early social dysfunction in a number of important neuropsychiatric disorders, likely because of the enormous amount and complexity of brain processes required to initiate and maintain social relationships (Adolphs, 2009). The Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers (PRISM) project focusses on the shared and unique neurobiological basis of social withdrawal in schizophrenia, Alzheimer and depression. In this paper, we discuss the working definition of social withdrawal for this study and the selection of objective and subjective rating scales to assess social withdrawal chosen or adapted for this project. We also discuss the MRI and EEG paradigms selected to study the systems and neural circuitry thought to underlie social functioning and more particularly to be involved in social withdrawal in humans, such as the social perception and the social affiliation networks. A number of behavioral paradigms were selected to assess complementary aspects of social cognition. Also, a digital phenotyping method (a smartphone application) was chosen to obtain real-life data.This work was supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking grant 115916 for the project ‘Psychiatric ratings using intermediate stratified markers

    Digital phenotyping and the COVID-19 pandemic:Capturing behavioral change in patients with psychiatric disorders

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    Contains fulltext : 227418.pdf (publisher's version ) (Closed access)The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented societal changes limiting us in our mobility and our ability to connect with others in person. These unusual but widespread changes provide a unique opportunity for studies using digital phenotyping tools. Digital phenotyping tools, such as mobile passive monitoring platforms (MPM), provide a new perspective on human behavior and hold promise to improve human behavioral research. However, there is currently little evidence that these tools can reliably detect changes in behavior. Considering the Considering the COVID-19 pandemic as a high impact common environmental factor we studied potential impact on behavior of participants using our mobile passive monitoring platform BEHAPP that was ambulatory tracking them during the COVID-19 pandemic. We pooled data from three MPM studies involving Schizophrenia (SZ), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients (N = 12). We compared the data collected on weekdays during three weeks prior and three weeks subsequent to the start of the quarantine. We hypothesized an increase in communication and a decrease in mobility. We observed a significant increase in the total time spent on communication applications (median 179 and 243 min per week respectively, p = 0.005), and a significant decrease in the number of unique places visited (median 6 and 3 visits per week respectively, p = 0.007), while the total time spent at home did not change significantly (median 64 and 77 h per week, respectively, p = 0.594). The data provides a proof of principle that digital phenotyping tools can identify changes in human behavior incited by a common external environmental factor.6 p

    Metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder: Comparison with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls

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    Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-psychiatric controls. Methods: We examined 2431 participants (mean age 44.3. ±. 13.0, 66.1 female), of whom 241 had BD; 1648 had MDD; and 542 were non-psychiatric controls. The MetS was ascertained according to NCEP ATP III criteria. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, level of education, smoking status and severity of depressive symptoms, and in the case of BD subjects, also for psychotropic medication use. Results: Subjects with BD had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS when compared to subjects with MDD and non-psychiatric controls (28.4 vs. 20.2 and 16.5, respectively, p<. 0.001), also when adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors (OR 1.52, 95 CI: 1.09-2.12, p= 0.02 compared to MDD; OR 1.79, 95 CI: 1.20-2.67, p= 0.005 compared to non-psychiatric controls). The differences between BD subjects with controls could partly be ascribed to a higher mean waist circumference (91.0. cm vs. 88.8, respectively, p= 0.03). In stratified analysis, the differences in the prevalence of MetS between patients with BD and MDD were found in symptomatic but not in asymptomatic cases. Conclusion: This study confirms a higher prevalence of MetS in patients with BD compared to both MDD patients and controls. Specifically at risk are patients with a higher depression score and abdominal obesity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

    Vitamin D Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults:A Role for Physical Functioning?

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    Objectives: Depressive symptoms and low vitamin D status are common in older persons and may be associated, but findings are inconsistent. This study investigated whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are associated with depressive symptoms in older adults, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. We also examined whether physical functioning could explain this relationship, to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Data from two independent prospective cohorts of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used: an older cohort (≥65 years, n = 1282, assessed from 1995–2002) and a younger-old cohort (55–65 years, n = 737, assessed from 2002–2009). Measurements: Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 years with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Cross-sectional and longitudinal linear regression techniques were used to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms. The mediating role of physical functioning was examined in the longitudinal models. Results: Cross-sectionally, associations were not significant after adjustment for confounders. Longitudinally, women in the older cohort with baseline 25(OH)D concentrations up to 75 nmol/L experienced 175 to 24% more depressive symptoms in the following 6 years, compared with women with 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nmol/L. Reduced physical performance partially mediated this relationship. In men and in the younger-old cohort, no significant associations were observed. Conclusions: Older women showed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms over time, which may partially be explained by declining physical functioning. Replication of these findings by future studies is needed