46 research outputs found

    Neurodevelopmental and Epilepsy Phenotypes in Individuals With Missense Variants in the Voltage-Sensing and Pore Domains of KCNH5

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    Background and Objectives KCNH5 encodes the voltage-gated potassium channel EAG2/Kv10.2. We aimed to delineate the neurodevelopmental and epilepsy phenotypic spectrum associated with de novo KCNH5 variants.Methods We screened 893 individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies for KCNH5 variants using targeted or exome sequencing. Additional individuals with KCNH5 variants were identified through an international collaboration. Clinical history, EEG, and imaging data were analyzed; seizure types and epilepsy syndromes were classified. We included 3 previously published individuals including additional phenotypic details.Results We report a cohort of 17 patients, including 9 with a recurrent de novo missense variant p.Arg327His, 4 with a recurrent missense variant p.Arg333His, and 4 additional novel missense variants. All variants were located in or near the functionally critical voltage-sensing or pore domains, absent in the general population, and classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic using the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria. All individuals presented with epilepsy with a median seizure onset at 6 months. They had a wide range of seizure types, including focal and generalized seizures. Cognitive outcomes ranged from normal intellect to profound impairment. Individuals with the recurrent p.Arg333His variant had a self-limited drug-responsive focal or generalized epilepsy and normal intellect, whereas the recurrent p.Arg327His variant was associated with infantile-onset DEE. Two individuals with variants in the pore domain were more severely affected, with a neonatal-onset movement disorder, early-infantile DEE, profound disability, and childhood death.Discussion We describe a cohort of 17 individuals with pathogenic or likely pathogenic missense variants in the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv10.2, including 14 previously unreported individuals. We present evidence for a putative emerging genotype-phenotype correlation with a spectrum of epilepsy and cognitive outcomes. Overall, we expand the role of EAG proteins in human disease and establish KCNH5 as implicated in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy.</p

    Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19: The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Importance: Evidence regarding corticosteroid use for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Objective: To determine whether hydrocortisone improves outcome for patients with severe COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: An ongoing adaptive platform trial testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, for example, antiviral agents, corticosteroids, or immunoglobulin. Between March 9 and June 17, 2020, 614 adult patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled and randomized within at least 1 domain following admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory or cardiovascular organ support at 121 sites in 8 countries. Of these, 403 were randomized to open-label interventions within the corticosteroid domain. The domain was halted after results from another trial were released. Follow-up ended August 12, 2020. Interventions: The corticosteroid domain randomized participants to a fixed 7-day course of intravenous hydrocortisone (50 mg or 100 mg every 6 hours) (n = 143), a shock-dependent course (50 mg every 6 hours when shock was clinically evident) (n = 152), or no hydrocortisone (n = 108). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of ICU-based respiratory or cardiovascular support) within 21 days, where patients who died were assigned -1 day. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model that included all patients enrolled with severe COVID-19, adjusting for age, sex, site, region, time, assignment to interventions within other domains, and domain and intervention eligibility. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%). Results: After excluding 19 participants who withdrew consent, there were 384 patients (mean age, 60 years; 29% female) randomized to the fixed-dose (n = 137), shock-dependent (n = 146), and no (n = 101) hydrocortisone groups; 379 (99%) completed the study and were included in the analysis. The mean age for the 3 groups ranged between 59.5 and 60.4 years; most patients were male (range, 70.6%-71.5%); mean body mass index ranged between 29.7 and 30.9; and patients receiving mechanical ventilation ranged between 50.0% and 63.5%. For the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively, the median organ support-free days were 0 (IQR, -1 to 15), 0 (IQR, -1 to 13), and 0 (-1 to 11) days (composed of 30%, 26%, and 33% mortality rates and 11.5, 9.5, and 6 median organ support-free days among survivors). The median adjusted odds ratio and bayesian probability of superiority were 1.43 (95% credible interval, 0.91-2.27) and 93% for fixed-dose hydrocortisone, respectively, and were 1.22 (95% credible interval, 0.76-1.94) and 80% for shock-dependent hydrocortisone compared with no hydrocortisone. Serious adverse events were reported in 4 (3%), 5 (3%), and 1 (1%) patients in the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with severe COVID-19, treatment with a 7-day fixed-dose course of hydrocortisone or shock-dependent dosing of hydrocortisone, compared with no hydrocortisone, resulted in 93% and 80% probabilities of superiority with regard to the odds of improvement in organ support-free days within 21 days. However, the trial was stopped early and no treatment strategy met prespecified criteria for statistical superiority, precluding definitive conclusions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

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    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non–critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support–free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support–free days among critically ill patients was 10 (–1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (–1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support–free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570

    Changes in microRNA expression in the whole hippocampus and hippocampal synaptoneurosome fraction following pilocarpine induced status epilepticus.

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    MicroRNAs regulate protein synthesis by binding non-translated regions of mRNAs and suppressing translation and/or increasing mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs play an important role in the nervous system including controlling synaptic plasticity. Their expression is altered in disease states including stroke, head injury and epilepsy. To better understand microRNA expression changes that might contribute to the development of epilepsy, microRNA arrays were performed on rat hippocampus 4 hours, 48 hours and 3 weeks following an episode of pilocarpine induced status epilepticus. Eighty microRNAs increased at one or more of the time points. No microRNAs decreased at 4 hours, and only a few decreased at 3 weeks, but 188 decreased 48 hours after status epilepticus. The large number of microRNAs with altered expression following status epilepticus suggests that microRNA regulation of translation has the potential to contribute to changes in protein expression during epileptogenesis. We carried out a second set of array's comparing microRNA expression at 48 hours in synaptoneurosome and nuclear fractions of the hippocampus. In control rat hippocampi multiple microRNAs were enriched in the synaptoneurosomal fraction as compared to the nuclear fraction. In contrast, 48 hours after status epilepticus only one microRNA was enriched in the synaptoneurosome fraction. The loss of microRNAs enriched in the synaptoneurosomal fraction implies a dramatic change in translational regulation in synapses 48 hours after status epilepticus

    Growth and Overall Health of Patients with SLC13A5 Citrate Transporter Disorder

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    We were interested in elucidating the non-neurologic health of patients with autosomal recessive SLC13A5 Citrate Transporter (NaCT) Disorder. Multiple variants have been reported that cause a loss of transporter activity, resulting in significant neurologic impairment, including seizures, as well as motor and cognitive dysfunction. Additionally, most patients lack tooth enamel (amelogenesis imperfecta). However, patients have not had their overall health and growth described in detail. Here we characterized the non-neurologic health of 15 patients with medical records uploaded to Ciitizen, a cloud-based patient medical records portal. Ciitizen used a query method for data extraction. Overall, the patients’ records suggested a moderate number of gastrointestinal issues related to feeding, reflux, vomiting and weight gain and a diverse number of respiratory complaints. Other organ systems had single or no abnormal diagnoses, including liver, renal and cardiac. Growth parameters were mostly in the normal range during early life, with a trend toward slower growth in the few adolescent patients with data available. The gastrointestinal and pulmonary issues may at least partially be explained by the severity of the neurologic disorder. More data are needed to clarify if growth is impacted during adolescence and if adult patients develop or are protected from non-neurologic disorders

    Real time PCR confirmed changes in 6 of 8 microRNAs identified as either decreased or increased on the hippocampal microRNA arrays following SE.

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    <p>P*<0.05 T-test, control N = 8 to 9 and SE N = 7 to 9 samples per group.</p