13,237 research outputs found

    Interaction of topological solitons with defects: using a nontrivial metric

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    By including potential into the flat metric, we study interaction of sine-Gordon soliton with potentials. We will show numerically that while the soliton-barrier system shows fully classical behaviour, the soliton-well system demonstrates non-classical behaviour. In particular, solitons with low velocities are trapped in the well and emit energy radiation.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figure

    The chicken embryo and its micro environment during egg storage and early incubation

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    When egg storage periods are prolonged (>7 days), hatchability and chick quality declines. The reason for this decline has been investigated, but is still not completely understood. At oviposition the developmental stage of the chicken embryo varies and so do the total number of viable cells. During storage, changes can occur in the embryo. Embryo viability at the end of storage seems to be dependent on the number of viable cells and the developmental stage of the embryo at oviposition. When the hypoblast is completely formed (during the quiescent developmental stage), the embryo seems to be more able to endure prolonged storage periods than embryos that are less or more advanced. During storage, changes also occur in egg characteristics such as albumen viscosity, albumen pH and yolk pH. There appears to be an interaction between albumen pH and embryo viability during early incubation and perhaps also during storage. An albumen pH of 8.2 seems to be optimal for embryo development. Albumen pH may influence embryo viability, but embryo viability may in turn, affect albumen pH. It has been hypothesised that an embryo in which the hypoblast is completely formed is better able to provide an effective barrier between the internal embryo and the exterior (yolk and albumen) and/or is better able to produce sufficient amount of carbon dioxide, which will reduce the pH level in the micro environment of the embryo to the optimal pH of 8.2. It appears that, to maintain hatchability and chick quality after prolonged storage periods, embryonic development should be advanced to the stage in which the hypoblast is completely formed or the atmosphere during storage and early incubation should be altered in such a way that albumen pH is maintained at the optimal level of 8.2

    Accountability models for alternative schools

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    Using historical test data from the standardized testing program (LEAP, iLEAP) in the state of Louisiana, this sequential mixed methods study utilized hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and a logistic regression method to test alternate measures of school performance (student achievement model, growth model, and transition to 9th grade) applied to alternative middle schools serving students who are academically behind. These schools are defined as those serving students who have not yet been able to transition to high school due to grade retention and are substantially older than their grade peers (Aron, 2003). The quantitative study sample included both students attending alternative middle schools of this type in Louisiana and a comparison group of overage middle schools students attending a regular school within the same districts. The quantitative study was followed by an evaluative study of three of the alternative schools determined to be successful using those alternate measures, and utilizing a client-centered model. From the results of this research study, a multiple measure accountability plan for alternative schools is suggested

    Gauss\u27 method of least squares: an historically-based introduction

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    This work presents Gauss\u27 justification of the method of least squares, following the treatment given by Gauss himself in Theoria Combinationis Observationum Erroribus Minimis Obnoxiae, where the main idea is to show that the least squares estimate is the unbiased linear estimate of minimum variance. (Actually, we present Gauss\u27 argument both in his terminology and translated into matrix terminology.) We show how this contrasts with Gauss\u27 earlier justfication in Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium which was based on the assumption of a normal distribution of errors, and yielded the estimate of maximum likelihood. We present as a background the development from scratch of all the probability theory needed, albeit we have not treated explicitly all the needed measure theory

    Modified sorting technique to mitigate the collateral mortality of trawled school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi)

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    The potential for changes to onboard handling practices in order to improve the fate of juvenile school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi) discarded during trawling were investigated in two Australian rivers (Clarence and Hunter) by comparing a purpose-built, water-filled sorting tray against a conventional dry tray across various conditions, including the range of typical delays before the start of sorting the catch (2 min vs. 15 min). Juvenile school prawns (n= 5760), caught during 32 and 16 deployments in each river, were caged and sacrificed at four times: immediately (T0), and at 24 (T24), 72 (T72), and 120 (T12 0) hours after having been discarded. In both rivers, most mortalities occurred between T0 and T24 and, after adjusting for control deaths (<12%), were greatest for the 15-min conventional treatment (up to 41% at T120). Mixed-effects logistic models revealed that in addition to the sampling time, method of sorting, and delay in sorting, the weight of the catch, salinity, and percentage cloud cover were significant predictors of mortality. Although trawling caused some mortalities and comparable stress (measured as L -lactate) in all school prawns, use of the water tray lessened the negative impacts of some of the above factors across both the 2-min and 15-min delays in sorting so that the overall discard mortality was reduced by more than a third. When used in conjunction with selective trawls, widespread application of the water tray should help to improve the sustainability of trawling for school prawns

    Severe elbow arthropathy in a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia: a case report

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    The Dynamic Structure Factor of the 1D Bose Gas near the Tonks-Girardeau Limit

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    While the 1D Bose gas appears to exhibit superfluid response under certain conditions, it fails the Landau criterion according to the elementary excitation spectrum calculated by Lieb. The apparent riddle is solved by calculating the dynamic structure factor of the Lieb-Liniger 1D Bose gas. A pseudopotential Hamiltonian in the fermionic representation is used to derive a Hartree-Fock operator, which turns out to be well-behaved and local. The Random-Phase approximation for the dynamic structure factor based on this derivation is calculated analytically and is expected to be valid at least up to first order in 1/γ1/\gamma, where γ\gamma is the dimensionless interaction strength of the model. The dynamic structure factor in this approximation clearly indicates a crossover behavior from the non-superfluid Tonks to the superfluid weakly-interacting regime, which should be observable by Bragg scattering in current experiments.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures misprints in formulas correcte

    Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and its interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation: a review

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    The emergence of thermoregulation in avian species is a complex matter in which neural as well as hormonal processes are involved. In a previous paper, the neural aspects of primary avian thermoregulation were discussed. In this paper the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT-axis) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation is evaluated. The regulatory mechanisms and different important hormones of both axes, which have stimulatory or inhibitory effects, are discussed. Because the onset of functionality of the thermoregulatory system is of great interest, the ontogeny and functionality of the hormonal axes are clarified. There is a great difference between precocial and altricial birds in hormonal events as well as in neural processes which are involved in the emergence of thermoregulation. In precocial avian species the HPT-axis becomes functional during the mid- to late embryonic period while the same axis only becomes fully functional during the first week post-hatch in altricial avian species. As early as the sixties, the emergence of homeothermy in chickens was investigated. It was concluded that the thyroid gland plays an important role in the thermoregulatory mechanisms of newly hatched chicks. More recent studies however were not able to show any direct effect of the thyroid hormones on the thermoregulation of day-old chicks, although blocking the conversion of T4 to T3 caused a decrease in body temperature in young chicks. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is known to act in thermoregulation in mammals and several authors have found an effect of TRH on the metabolism of young and older chicks. However, the exact mechanism still remains unclear. Because the HPT- and the HPA-axis show close relationships, the role of the HPA-axis in the ontogeny of thermoregulation is also taken into consideration in this review. In mammals as well as in birds, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is involved in the primary thermoregulation. We conclude that the HPT-axis has an important role in the ontogeny of avian thermoregulation. The exact role of the HPA-axis remains largely unclear although at least CRH is definitely of some importance
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