3,235 research outputs found

    Filamentary Network and Magnetic Field Structures Revealed with BISTRO in the High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 2264: Global Properties and Local Magnetogravitational Configurations

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    We report 850 Όm continuum polarization observations toward the filamentary high-mass star-forming region NGC 2264, taken as part of the B-fields In STar forming Regions Observations large program on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. These data reveal a well-structured nonuniform magnetic field in the NGC 2264C and 2264D regions with a prevailing orientation around 30° from north to east. Field strength estimates and a virial analysis of the major clumps indicate that NGC 2264C is globally dominated by gravity, while in 2264D, magnetic, gravitational, and kinetic energies are roughly balanced. We present an analysis scheme that utilizes the locally resolved magnetic field structures, together with the locally measured gravitational vector field and the extracted filamentary network. From this, we infer statistical trends showing that this network consists of two main groups of filaments oriented approximately perpendicular to one another. Additionally, gravity shows one dominating converging direction that is roughly perpendicular to one of the filament orientations, which is suggestive of mass accretion along this direction. Beyond these statistical trends, we identify two types of filaments. The type I filament is perpendicular to the magnetic field with local gravity transitioning from parallel to perpendicular to the magnetic field from the outside to the filament ridge. The type II filament is parallel to the magnetic field and local gravity. We interpret these two types of filaments as originating from the competition between radial collapsing, driven by filament self-gravity, and longitudinal collapsing, driven by the region's global gravity

    First BISTRO Observations of the Dark Cloud Taurus L1495A-B10: The Role of the Magnetic Field in the Earliest Stages of Low-mass Star Formation

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    We present BISTRO Survey 850 ÎŒm dust emission polarization observations of the L1495A-B10 region of the Taurus molecular cloud, taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We observe a roughly triangular network of dense filaments. We detect nine of the dense starless cores embedded within these filaments in polarization, finding that the plane-of-sky orientation of the core-scale magnetic field lies roughly perpendicular to the filaments in almost all cases. We also find that the large-scale magnetic field orientation measured by Planck is not correlated with any of the core or filament structures, except in the case of the lowest-density core. We propose a scenario for early prestellar evolution that is both an extension to, and consistent with, previous models, introducing an additional evolutionary transitional stage between field-dominated and matter-dominated evolution, observed here for the first time. In this scenario, the cloud collapses first to a sheet-like structure. Uniquely, we appear to be seeing this sheet almost face on. The sheet fragments into filaments, which in turn form cores. However, the material must reach a certain critical density before the evolution changes from being field dominated to being matter dominated. We measure the sheet surface density and the magnetic field strength at that transition for the first time and show consistency with an analytical prediction that had previously gone untested for over 50 yr

    The JCMT BISTRO Survey: Studying the Complex Magnetic Field of L43

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    We present observations of polarized dust emission at 850 ÎŒm from the L43 molecular cloud, which sits in the Ophiuchus cloud complex. The data were taken using SCUBA-2/POL-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as a part of the BISTRO large program. L43 is a dense ( NH2∌1022 –1023 cm−2) complex molecular cloud with a submillimeter-bright starless core and two protostellar sources. There appears to be an evolutionary gradient along the isolated filament that L43 is embedded within, with the most evolved source closest to the Sco OB2 association. One of the protostars drives a CO outflow that has created a cavity to the southeast. We see a magnetic field that appears to be aligned with the cavity walls of the outflow, suggesting interaction with the outflow. We also find a magnetic field strength of up to ∌160 ± 30 ÎŒG in the main starless core and up to ∌90 ± 40 ÎŒG in the more diffuse, extended region. These field strengths give magnetically super- and subcritical values, respectively, and both are found to be roughly trans-AlfvĂ©nic. We also present a new method of data reduction for these denser but fainter objects like starless cores

    Cost analysis for "The Magic Glasses Philippines" health education package to prevent intestinal worm infections among Filipino schoolchildren

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    Background: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a significant public health problem affecting over 900 million people globally. Health education has been shown to complement mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of these intestinal worms. We reported recently results of a cluster randomised control trial (RCT) showing the positive impact of the "The Magic Glasses Philippines (MGP)" health education package in reducing STH infections among schoolchildren in intervention schools with ≀15% STH baseline prevalence in Laguna province, the Philippines. To inform decision making on the economic implications of the MGP, we evaluated the in-trial costs and then quantified the costs of scaling up the intervention both regionally and nationally. Methods: Costs were determined for the MGP RCT conducted in 40 schools in Laguna province. We estimated the total cost and the costs incurred per student for the actual RCT and the total costs for regional and national scale-up in all schools regardless of STH endemicity. The costs associated with the implementation of standard health education (SHE) activities and mass drug administration (MDA) were determined with a public sector perspective. Findings: The cost per participating student in the MGP RCT was Php 58.65 (USD 1.15) but if teachers instead of research staff had been involved, the estimated cost would have been considerably lower at Php 39.45 (USD 0.77). Extrapolating the costs for regional scale-up, the costs per student were estimated to be Php 15.24 (USD 0.30). As it is scaled up at the national level to include more schoolchildren, the estimated cost was increased at Php 17.46 (USD 0.34). In scenario 2 and 3, consistently, labour/salary costs associated with the delivery of the MGP contributed most to overall programme expenditure. Furthermore, the estimated average cost per student for SHE and MDA were Php 117.34 (USD 2.30) and Php 58.17 (USD 1.14), respectively. Using national scale up estimates, the cost of combining the MGP with SHE and MDA was Php 192.97 (USD 3.79). Interpretation: These findings suggest that the integration of MGP into the school curriculum would be an affordable and scalable approach to respond to the continuous burden of STH infection among schoolchildren in the Philippines. Funding: National and Medical Research Council, Australia, and the UBS-Optimus Foundation, Switzerland. © 2022 The Author(s

    High Levels of Diversity in Anopheles Subgenus Kerteszia Revealed by Species Delimitation Analyses

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    The Anopheles subgenus Kerteszia is a poorly understood group of mosquitoes that includes several species of medical importance. Although there are currently twelve recognized species in the subgenus, previous studies have shown that this is likely to be an underestimate of species diversity. Here, we undertake a baseline study of species delimitation using the barcode region of the mtDNA COI gene to explore species diversity among a geographically and taxonomically diverse range of Kerteszia specimens. Beginning with 10 of 12 morphologically identified Kerteszia species spanning eight countries, species delimitation analyses indicated a high degree of cryptic diversity. Overall, our analyses found support for at least 28 species clusters within the subgenus Kerteszia. The most diverse taxon was Anopheles neivai, a known malaria vector, with eight species clusters. Five other species taxa showed strong signatures of species complex structure, among them Anopheles bellator, which is also considered a malaria vector. There was some evidence for species structure within An. homunculus, although the results were equivocal across delimitation analyses. The current study, therefore, suggests that species diversity within the subgenus Kerteszia has been grossly underestimated. Further work will be required to build on this molecular characterization of species diversity and will rely on genomic level approaches and additional morphological data to test these species hypotheses

    First BISTRO Observations of the Dark Cloud Taurus L1495A-B10: The Role of the Magnetic Field in the Earliest Stages of Low-mass Star Formation

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    Abstract We present BISTRO Survey 850 ÎŒm dust emission polarization observations of the L1495A-B10 region of the Taurus molecular cloud, taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We observe a roughly triangular network of dense filaments. We detect nine of the dense starless cores embedded within these filaments in polarization, finding that the plane-of-sky orientation of the core-scale magnetic field lies roughly perpendicular to the filaments in almost all cases. We also find that the large-scale magnetic field orientation measured by Planck is not correlated with any of the core or filament structures, except in the case of the lowest-density core. We propose a scenario for early prestellar evolution that is both an extension to, and consistent with, previous models, introducing an additional evolutionary transitional stage between field-dominated and matter-dominated evolution, observed here for the first time. In this scenario, the cloud collapses first to a sheet-like structure. Uniquely, we appear to be seeing this sheet almost face on. The sheet fragments into filaments, which in turn form cores. However, the material must reach a certain critical density before the evolution changes from being field dominated to being matter dominated. We measure the sheet surface density and the magnetic field strength at that transition for the first time and show consistency with an analytical prediction that had previously gone untested for over 50 yr.</jats:p

    Developmental diet alters the fecundity-longevity relationship and age-related gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

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    The standard evolutionary theory of aging predicts a negative relationship (trade-off) between fecundity and longevity. However, in principle, the fecundity-longevity relationship can become positive in populations in which individuals have unequal resources. Positive fecundity-longevity relationships also occur in queens of eusocial insects such as ants and bees. Developmental diet is likely to be central to determining trade-offs as it affects key fitness traits, but its exact role remains uncertain. For example, in Drosophila melanogaster, changes in adult diet can affect fecundity, longevity, and gene expression throughout life, but it is unknown how changes in developmental (larval) diet affect fecundity-longevity relationships and gene expression in adults. Using D. melanogaster, we tested the hypothesis that varying developmental diet alters the directionality of fecundity-longevity relationships in adults, and characterised associated gene expression changes. We reared larvae on low (20%), medium (100%), and high (120%) yeast diets, and transferred adult females to a common diet. We measured fecundity and longevity of individual adult females and profiled gene expression changes with age. Adult females raised on different larval diets exhibited fecundity-longevity relationships that varied from significantly positive to significantly negative, despite minimal differences in mean life-time fertility or longevity. Treatments also differed in age-related gene expression, including for aging-related genes. Hence the sign of fecundity-longevity relationships in adult insects can be altered and even reversed by changes in larval diet quality. By extension, larval diet differences may represent a key mechanistic factor underpinning positive fecundity-longevity relationships observed in species such as eusocial insects

    Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy Type 1 is associated with a high risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and end-stage heart failure

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    \ua9 2023 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.Background and Aims: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is caused by variants in EMD (EDMD1) and LMNA (EDMD2). Cardiac conduction defects and atrial arrhythmia are common to both, but LMNA variants also cause end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA). This study aimed to better characterize the cardiac complications of EMD variants. Methods: Consecutively referred EMD variant-carriers were retrospectively recruited from 12 international cardiomyopathy units. MVA and ESHF incidences in male and female variant-carriers were determined. Male EMD variant-carriers with a cardiac phenotype at baseline (EMDCARDIAC) were compared with consecutively recruited male LMNA variant-carriers with a cardiac phenotype at baseline (LMNACARDIAC). Results: Longitudinal follow-up data were available for 38 male and 21 female EMD variant-carriers [mean (SD) ages 33.4 (13.3) and 43.3 (16.8) years, respectively]. Nine (23.7%) males developed MVA and five (13.2%) developed ESHF during a median (inter-quartile range) follow-up of 65.0 (24.3-109.5) months. No female EMD variant-carrier had MVA or ESHF, but nine (42.8%) developed a cardiac phenotype at a median (inter-quartile range) age of 58.6 (53.2-60.4) years. Incidence rates for MVA were similar for EMDCARDIAC and LMNACARDIAC (4.8 and 6.6 per 100 person-years, respectively; log-rank P =. 49). Incidence rates for ESHF were 2.4 and 5.9 per 100 person-years for EMDCARDIAC and LMNACARDIAC, respectively (log-rank P =. 09). Conclusions: Male EMD variant-carriers have a risk of progressive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias similar to that of male LMNA variant-carriers. Early implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and heart failure drug therapy should be considered in male EMD variant-carriers with cardiac disease

    Severe acute malnutrition promotes bacterial binding over proinflammatory cytokine secretion by circulating innate immune cells.

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    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have high infectious mortality and morbidity, implicating defects in their immune defenses. We hypothesized that circulating innate immune cells from children (0 to 59 months) hospitalized with SAM in Zambia and Zimbabwe (n = 141) have distinct capacity to respond to bacteria relative to adequately nourished healthy controls (n = 92). SAM inpatients had higher neutrophil and monocyte Escherichia coli binding capacity but lower monocyte activation and proinflammatory mediator secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium than controls. Among SAM cases, wasting severity was negatively associated with cytokine secretion, children with HIV had lower monocyte activation, and the youngest children released the least myeloperoxidase upon stimulation. Inpatient bacterial binding capacity and monocyte activation were associated with higher odds of persistent SAM at discharge, a risk factor for subsequent mortality. Thus, SAM shifts innate immune cell function, favoring bacterial containment over proinflammatory activation, which may contribute to health deficits after discharge
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