125 research outputs found

    Predictors of psychological well-being among treatment seeking transgender individuals

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    Research has yet to identify specific predictors of poor psychological well-being and quality of life in transgender people. This study aimed first to explore the predictive value of five factors known to be associated with poor psychological well-being in cis- and transgender people; age, self-esteem, victimisation, interpersonal problems, and body dissatisfaction. Second, to investigate the mediatory role of self-esteem and social support. Two hundred and eight participants (104 transgender and 104 cisgender controls), matched by age and gender, completed measures of these predictor variables, along with general psychopathology and functional quality of life. The results indicate that in the transgender group, greater psychopathology and greater depression were predicted by younger age (psychopathology only), lower self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and greater interpersonal problems. In the cisgender group, only lower self-esteem and greater interpersonal problems were significant predictors of these factors. For quality of life, lower self-esteem and greater interpersonal problems were significant predictors of low quality of life in both groups. Self-esteem but not social support mediated the above relationships. Overall, self-esteem and interpersonal problems appear to be crucial factors that influence well-being. Those providing treatment to transgender people should pay more attention to these areas

    Experiences and psychological wellbeing outcomes associated with bullying in treatment-seeking transgender and gender-diverse youth

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    This paper is in closed access until 11 June 2020.Purpose: Bullying in the adult transgender population is well documented, but less is known about bullying among transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth. Studies have begun to explore experiences of bullying and the associated psychological distress in TGD youth; however, they often fail to distinguish among the separate groups within LGBT samples. This study sought to explore the prevalence, nature, and outcomes of bullying in TGD youth attending a transgender health service in the United Kingdom (UK), taking into account birth-assigned sex and out and social transition status. Methods: Prior to their first appointment at a specialist gender clinic, participants completed a brief sociodemographic questionnaire, a questionnaire assessing experiences and outcomes of bullying, and a clinically-validated measure of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: A total of 274 young TGD people aged 16 to 25 years participated in the study. The majority of participants (86.5%) reported having experienced bullying, predominantly in school. Bullying was more prevalent in birth-assigned females and in out individuals, and commonly consisted of homophobic/transphobic (particularly in socially-transitioned individuals) or appearance-related (particularly in out individuals) name-calling. Individuals who reported having experienced bullying showed greater anxiety symptomology and also self-reported effects on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Birth-assigned females also reported greater effects on family relationships and social life. Conclusion: These findings indicate very high levels of bullying within the young TGD population attending a transgender health service in the UK, which affects wellbeing significantly. More intervention work and education need to be introduced in schools to reduce the amount of bullying

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study

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    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviour

    ‚ÄėI Didn‚Äôt Have the Language Then‚Äô‚ÄĒA Qualitative Examination of Terminology in the Development of Non-Binary Identities

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    Introduction: Identities that lie outside of exclusively male and female, such as non-binary and genderqueer, have become increasingly more prevalent and visible within recent years. However, to date, the role of terminology in the development of such gender identities has been under-researched. This study aims to: (1) Examine what role terminology plays in coming to identify as non-binary. (2) Explore the continuing importance of terminology once a non-binary identity is established. Methods: This study uses thematic analysis on data produced from interviews with 16 participants who self-selected for the study and were recruited from several transgender and LGBTQ+ organisations on the basis that they identified outside the gender binary of male and female. Results: The analysis uncovered several key themes and sub-themes relating to terminology choice, encountering new terms and the process of identifying with new terminology, as well as becoming visible and understood by others. Conclusions: This study found that terminology is not only central in coming to identify as something other than exclusively male and female, it also remains an important factor when it comes to making a non-binary identity visible to others

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Trans People: Associations with Psychological Symptoms, Victimization, Interpersonal Functioning, and Perceived Social Support

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    Introduction. There is a paucity of systematic research in the area of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans people. Aims. To investigated the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury in trans people and the associations with intra- and interpersonal problems. Methods. Participants were 155 untreated individuals with a diagnosis of Transsexualism (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic. Main Outcome Measures. All participants completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, The Hamburg Body Drawing Scale, The Experiences of Transphobia Scale, The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 and The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results. The sample consisted of 66.5% trans women and 33.5% trans men and 36.8% of them had a history of engaging in NSSI. The prevalence of NSSI was significantly higher in trans men (57.7%) compared to trans women (26.2%). Trans individuals with NSSI reported more psychological and interpersonal problems and perceived less social support compared to trans individuals without NSSI. Moreover, the probability of having experienced physical harassment related to being trans was highest in trans women with NSSI (compared to those without NSSI). The study found that with respect to psychological symptoms, trans women reported significantly more intrapersonal and interpersonal symptoms compared to trans men. Finally, the results of the regression analysis showed that the probability of engaging in NSSI by trans individuals was significantly positively related to a younger age, being trans male and reporting more psychological symptoms. Conclusions. The high levels of NSSI behavior and its association with interpersonal and interpersonal difficulties and lack of social support needs to be taken into consideration when assessing trans individuals. The effect of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on psychological functioning, including NSSI behavior, as part of the transitional journey of trans individuals should be explored in future studies

    Systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies in transsexualism

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    BACKGROUND: Over the last 50 years, several studies have provided estimates of the prevalence of transsexualism. The variation in reported prevalence is considerable and may be explained by factors such as the methodology and diagnostic classification used and the year and country in which the studies took place. Taking these into consideration, this study aimed to critically and systematically review the available literature measuring the prevalence of transsexualism as well as performing a meta-analysis using the available data. METHODS: Databases were systematically searched and 1473 possible studies were identified. After initial scrutiny of the article titles and removal of those not relevant, 250 studies were selected for further appraisal. Of these, 211 were excluded after reading the abstracts and a further 18 after reading the full article. This resulted in 21 studies on which to perform a systematic review, with only 12 having sufficient data for meta-analysis. The primary data of the epidemiological studies were extracted as raw numbers. An aggregate effect size, weighted by sample size, was computed to provide an overall effect size across the studies. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The relative weighted contribution of each study was also assessed. RESULTS: The overall meta-analytical prevalence for transsexualism was 4.6 in 100,000 individuals; 6.8 for trans women and 2.6 for trans men. Time analysis found an increase in reported prevalence over the last 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of transsexualism reported in the literature is increasing. However, it is still very low and is mainly based on individuals attending clinical services and so does not provide an overall picture of prevalence in the general population. However, this study should be considered as a starting point and the field would benefit from more rigorous epidemiological studies acknowledging current changes in the classification system and including different locations worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved

    Autistic Traits in Treatment-Seeking Transgender Adults.

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    The present study aimed to compare prevalence of autistic traits measured by the self-reported autism spectrum quotient-short (AQ-short) in a transgender clinical population (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ656) matched by age and sex assigned at birth to a cisgender community sample. Results showed that transgender and cisgender people reported similar levels of possible autistic caseness. Transgender people assigned female were more likely to have clinically significant autistic traits compared to any other group. No difference was found between those assigned male. High AQ scores may not be indicative of the presence of an autism spectrum condition as the difference between groups mainly related to social behaviours; such scores may be a reflection of transgender people's high social anxiety levels due to negative past experiences

    The stability of autistic traits in transgender adults following cross-sex hormone treatment

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    Background: Recent research has shown that a high percentage of treatment-seeking transgender adults who were assigned female at birth (AFAB) reported scores above the clinical cutoff for autistic traits. It is unclear whether those scores reflect a stable trait or may be inflated by the high levels of anxiety typically associated with transgender people attending clinical services.Aims: This longitudinal study aims to explore the impact of Cross-sex Hormone Treatment (CHT) on levels autistic traits, independent of changes in anxiety.Method: Transgender adults who were assessed at a national transgender health service in the UK, who had not previously received CHT and who had completed the AQ-Short as a measure of autistic traits pre- and one-year post-CHT were included in the study (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ118). Anxiety was assessed at the same time points using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Results: AQ-Short scores remained very stable over time (ICC = 0.7; CIs 0.591-0.779) but anxiety showed little consistency (ICC = 0.386; CIs 0.219 to 0.531). Repeated measures ANOVA found a main effect of assigned sex with AFAB having higher AQ-Short scores. There was no change in AQ-Short scores and no significant interaction between assigned sex and change in AQ-Short scores.Conclusion: This study confirmed that treatment seeking transgender AFAB people have higher levels of autistic traits at follow-up compared to AMAB transgender people and that these traits are stable following one year of CHT regardless of assigned sex. This may have clinical implications regarding the support that transgender people may require following medical transition
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