176 research outputs found

    Outil de validation de l'épreuve terminale d'un cours au collégial

    Get PDF
    Une démarche d’autoévaluation d’un programme d’études nous a amenées à élaborer un outil d’analyse réflexive, destiné aux enseignants, qui permet de porter un regard critique sur les choix pédagogiques en matière d’évaluation des compétences dans le cadre de l’épreuve terminale de cours. L’utilisation de cet outil s’inscrit dans une démarche qui assure la qualité de l’évaluation des apprentissages et facilite un processus d’évaluation continue des programmes d’études. Les participants seront invités à mettre à l’essai cette démarche réflexive

    Expérimentation d’un outil de validation de l’épreuve synthèse d’un programme d’études collégiales

    Get PDF
    La mise en oeuvre de l’approche par compétences (APC) dans les programmes de formation au Québec a suscité un lot de changements dans les pratiques d’enseignement et d’évaluation durant les deux dernières décennies. Cette approche a occasionné un renouvellement des programmes d’études. Maintenant, les programmes d’études ciblent le développement des compétences. Le renouveau de l’enseignement est accompagné par la modification de certains articles du Règlement sur le régime des études collégiales (RREC), on y ajoute une nouvelle exigence de sanction des études pour les programmes collégiaux. Chacun des programmes d’études collégiales doit désormais mettre en place une activité synthèse d’évaluation des apprentissages. Cette activité doit se situer à la fin du parcours de formation et témoigner de l’intégration des compétences et des apprentissages essentiels réalisés dans l’ensemble du programme d’études. L’épreuve synthèse de programme (ÉSP) est sous la responsabilité des collèges et elle est encadrée par la politique institutionnelle d’évaluation des apprentissages (PIEA) de chaque établissement. Cette imposition ministérielle est toutefois peu documentée et laisse une grande latitude aux programmes d’études quant aux choix de la stratégie, aux modalités de passation et d’évaluation. Ceci amène le programme Technologie de radio-oncologie du collège Ahuntsic à se questionner sur la validité de leur ÉSP. Cette recherche porte sur le thème de l’ÉSP d’études collégiales. La problématique s’articule autour du fait qu’il est possible de créer une ÉSP qui s’appuie sur les principes de l’évaluation certificative des apprentissages, mais qui ne permet pas d’attester de l’atteinte des compétences de l’ensemble du programme d’études. Par conséquent, le premier objectif de cette recherche vise l’expérimentation d’un outil de validation de l’ÉSP. Le deuxième objectif consiste à analyser les résultats d’expérimentation et de bonifier l’outil de validation au regard des commentaires des participantes et des participants. Dans le cadre du présent essai, un outil de validation de l’ÉSP a été mis au point et mis à l’essai à travers une recherche-expérimentation, qui repose sur une approche méthodologique qualitative et une posture épistémologique de recherche. L’outil de validation de l’ÉSP est inspiré des travaux du Pôle de l’Est (1996). Il propose une série de questions regroupées selon cinq thématiques pour que les enseignantes et les enseignants du cours porteur de l’ÉSP puissent poser un diagnostic sur l’ÉSP de leur programme d’études. Chaque thématique est accompagnée d’une grille d’évaluation à échelle descriptive pour faciliter la réflexion sur les forces, les limites et reconnaître les correctifs devant être apportés à l’ÉSP. Un plan de travail est également suggéré, facilitant ainsi les travaux à entrevoir pour assurer l’amélioration de l’ÉSP. L’expérimentation de l’outil de validation de l’ÉSP par quatre équipes enseignantes a permis de recueillir des résultats à partir des réponses à un questionnaire électronique et à une entrevue téléphonique semi-dirigée, ceci en tenant compte des considérations éthiques. Ces résultats ont été analysés, compilés et comparés pour aider à concevoir une version finale de l’outil de validation de l’ÉSP. La version finale de l’outil de validation de l’ÉSP intègre les propositions d’amélioration émises par les quatre équipes d’enseignantes et d’enseignants qui ont accepté d’expérimenter l’outil. La triangulation des méthodes de collecte de données a été utilisée afin d’assurer la rigueur des travaux. Les commentaires tels que l’ajout d’une piste de réflexion concernant la charge de travail associé à la réalisation de l’ÉSP, l’ajout d’une définition concernant une caractéristique de l’évaluation certificative ainsi que la correction de deux critères d’évaluation inscrits dans la grille d’évaluation à échelle descriptive, ont favorisé la conception d’un outil de validation de l’ÉSP qui répond davantage aux besoins des programmes d’études collégiales. Les résultats obtenus portent à croire que l’outil de validation de l’ÉSP est complet et utile. Il peut être utilisé autant par les programmes préuniversitaires que les programmes techniques. Bien qu’il propose une démarche simple, il nécessite une concertation en équipe programme et il peut s’avérer aidant que cette démarche soit soutenue par une conseillère ou un conseiller pédagogique. De cette recherche-expérimentation sont ressorties des pistes de recherches future notamment la conception d’un outil de validation pour les épreuves terminales de cours. De plus, une connaissance plus approfondie des notions concernant l’évaluation certificative peut soulever également des questionnements concernant les différentes stratégies d’évaluation à envisager dans le cadre d’une ÉSP

    Striatal molecular signature of subchronic subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation in parkinsonian rat

    Get PDF
    International audienceThis study addresses the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation (STN-HFS) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and its interaction with levodopa (L-DOPA), focusing on the striatum. Striatal gene expression profile was assessed in rats with nigral dopamine neuron lesion, either treated or not, using agilent microarrays and qPCR verification. The treatments consisted in anti-akinetic STN-HFS (5 days), chronic L-DOPA treatment inducing dyskinesia (LIDs) or the combination of the two treatments that exacerbated LIDs. STN-HFS modulated 71 striatal genes. The main biological processes associated with the differentially expressed gene products include regulation of growth, of apoptosis and of synaptic transmission, and extracellular region is a major cellular component implicated. In particular, several of these genes have been shown to support survival or differentiation of striatal or of dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate that STN HFS may induce widespread anatomo-functional rearrangements in the striatum and create a molecular environment favorable for neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. STN-HFS and L-DOPA treatment share very few common gene regulation features indicating that the molecular substrates underlying their striatal action are mostly different; among the common effects is the down-regulation of Adrb1, which encodes the adrenergic beta-1-receptor, supporting a major role of this receptor in Parkinson's disease. In addition to genes already reported to be associated with LIDs (preprodynorphin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, cannabinoid receptor 1), the comparison between DOPA and DOPA/HFS identifies immunity-related genes as potential players in L-DOPA side effects

    Plant Carbohydrate Scavenging through TonB-Dependent Receptors: A Feature Shared by Phytopathogenic and Aquatic Bacteria

    Get PDF
    TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins mainly known for the active transport of iron siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the genome of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), predicts 72 TBDRs. Such an overrepresentation is common in Xanthomonas species but is limited to only a small number of bacteria. Here, we show that one Xcc TBDR transports sucrose with a very high affinity, suggesting that it might be a sucrose scavenger. This TBDR acts with an inner membrane transporter, an amylosucrase and a regulator to utilize sucrose, thus defining a new type of carbohydrate utilization locus, named CUT locus, involving a TBDR for the transport of substrate across the outer membrane. This sucrose CUT locus is required for full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis, showing its importance for the adaptation to host plants. A systematic analysis of Xcc TBDR genes and a genome context survey suggested that several Xcc TBDRs belong to other CUT loci involved in the utilization of various plant carbohydrates. Interestingly, several Xcc TBDRs and CUT loci are conserved in aquatic bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Saccharophagus degradans, Shewanella spp., Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudoalteromonas spp., which share the ability to degrade a wide variety of complex carbohydrates and display TBDR overrepresentation. We therefore propose that TBDR overrepresentation and the presence of CUT loci designate the ability to scavenge carbohydrates. Thus CUT loci, which seem to participate to the adaptation of phytopathogenic bacteria to their host plants, might also play a very important role in the biogeochemical cycling of plant-derived nutrients in marine environments. Moreover, the TBDRs and CUT loci identified in this study are clearly different from those characterized in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which allow glycan foraging, suggesting a convergent evolution of TBDRs in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes

    Measuring Bird Damage to Three Fruit Crops: A Comparison of Grower and Field Estimates

    Get PDF
    Birds are common pests in fruit orchards. They frequently consume and damage fruit resulting in decreased yields for growers. The true extent of damage is difficult to measure. Producer surveys are often implemented to estimate damage, but the accuracy of these estimates is uncertain. We compared damage estimates obtained through field studies with estimates from a producer survey for three fruit crops: wine grapes, sweet cherries, and ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. We also analyzed relationships between use of various damage management methods and levels of bird damage. We found wine grape and sweet cherry growers accurately assessed bird damage, while ‘Honeycrisp’ apple growers may overestimate damage. Growing region appears to be an important damage predictor for wine grape and sweet cherry crops. Significant relationships between management methods and damage were positive, suggesting growers only use these methods when bird damage is substantial

    Proportions of bird damage in tree fruits are higher in low-fruit-abundance contexts

    Get PDF
    Frugivorous birds impose significant costs on tree fruit growers through direct consumption of fruit and grower efforts to manage birds.We documented factors that influenced tree fruit bird damage from 2012 through 2014 with a coordinated field study in Michigan, New York, and Washington. For sweet cherries, percent bird damage was higher in 2012 compared to 2013 and 2014, in Michigan and New York compared toWashington, and in blocks with more edges adjacent to non-sweet cherry land-cover types. These patterns appeared to be associated with fruit abundance patterns; 2012 was a particularly lowyield year for tree fruits in Michigan and New York and percent bird damage was high. In addition, percent bird damage to sweet and tart cherries in Michigan was higher in landscapes with low to moderate forest cover compared to higher forest cover landscapes. \u27Honeycrisp\u27 apple blocks under utility wires were marginally more likely to have greater bird damage compared to blocks without wires. We recommend growers prepare bird management plans that consider the spatial distribution of fruit and non-fruit areas of the farm. Growers should generally expect to invest more in bird management in low-yield years, in blocks isolated from other blocks of the same crop, and in blocks where trees can provide entry to the crop for frugivorous birds

    Randomised pharmacokinetic trial of rifabutin with lopinavir/ritonavir-antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Vietnam.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Rifampicin and protease inhibitors are difficult to use concomitantly in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis because of drug-drug interactions. Rifabutin has been proposed as an alternative rifamycin, but there is concern that the current recommended dose is suboptimal. The principal aim of this study was to compare bioavailability of two doses of rifabutin (150 mg three times per week and 150 mg daily) in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis who initiated lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam. Concentrations of lopinavir/ritonavir were also measured. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, multi-dose, two-arm, cross-over trial, conducted in Vietnamese adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City (Clinical trial registry number NCT00651066). Rifabutin pharmacokinetics were evaluated before and after the introduction of lopinavir/ritonavir -based antiretroviral therapy using patient randomization lists. Serial rifabutin and 25-O-desacetyl rifabutin concentrations were measured during a dose interval after 2 weeks of rifabutin 300 mg daily, after 3 weeks of rifabutin 150 mg daily with lopinavir/ritonavir and after 3 weeks of rifabutin 150 mg three times per week with lopinavir/ritonavir. RESULTS: Sixteen and seventeen patients were respectively randomized to the two arms, and pharmacokinetic analysis carried out in 12 and 13 respectively. Rifabutin 150 mg daily with lopinavir/ritonavir was associated with a 32% mean increase in rifabutin average steady state concentration compared with rifabutin 300 mg alone. In contrast, the rifabutin average steady state concentration decreased by 44% when rifabutin was given at 150 mg three times per week with lopinavir/ritonavir. With both dosing regimens, 2 - 5 fold increases of the 25-O-desacetyl- rifabutin metabolite were observed when rifabutin was given with lopinavir/ritonavir compared with rifabutin alone. The different doses of rifabutin had no significant effect on lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, rifabutin 150 mg daily may be preferred when co-administered with lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00651066

    Impacts of Social Distancing Policies on Mobility and COVID-19 Case Growth in the US

    Full text link
    Social distancing remains an important strategy to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. However, the impacts of specific state-level policies on mobility and subsequent COVID-19 case trajectories have not been completely quantified. Using anonymized and aggregated mobility data from opted-in Google users, we found that state-level emergency declarations resulted in a 9.9% reduction in time spent away from places of residence. Implementation of one or more social distancing policies resulted in an additional 24.5% reduction in mobility the following week, and subsequent shelter-in-place mandates yielded an additional 29.0% reduction. Decreases in mobility were associated with substantial reductions in case growth 2 to 4 weeks later. For example, a 10% reduction in mobility was associated with a 17.5% reduction in case growth 2 weeks later. Given the continued reliance on social distancing policies to limit the spread of COVID-19, these results may be helpful to public health officials trying to balance infection control with the economic and social consequences of these policies.Comment: Co-first Authors: GAW, SV, VE, and AF contributed equally. Corresponding Author: Dr. Evgeniy Gabrilovich, [email protected] 32 pages (including supplemental material), 4 figures in the main text, additional figures in the supplemental materia

    Can dust emission be used to map the interstellar medium in high-redshift galaxies? Results from the Herschel Reference Survey

    Full text link
    It has often been suggested that an alternative to the standard CO/21-cm method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy might be to estimate the mass of the ISM from the continuum dust emission. In this paper, we investigate the potential of this technique using Herschel observations of ten galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey and in the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing towards the centre of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21-cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain `X factor' for the molecular gas by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 30%, which gives an upper limit on the fundamental accuracy of the dust method. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is very similar to an independent Herschel measurement for M31 and to the calibration for the Milky Way from Planck measurements.Comment: Submitted to the Astrophysical Journa

    Risk of intracranial haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke after convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy : international individual patient data pooled analysis

    Get PDF
    Altres ajuts: JF reports grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III, grants from Fundació Marató TV3, grants from NIH, grants from Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya.To investigate the frequency, time-course and predictors of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), recurrent convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH), and ischemic stroke after cSAH associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We performed a systematic review and international individual patient-data pooled analysis in patients with cSAH associated with probable or possible CAA diagnosed on baseline MRI using the modified Boston criteria. We used Cox proportional hazards models with a frailty term to account for between-cohort differences. We included 190 patients (mean age 74.5 years; 45.3% female) from 13 centers with 385 patient-years of follow-up (median 1.4 years). The risks of each outcome (per patient-year) were: ICH 13.2% (95% CI 9.9-17.4); recurrent cSAH 11.1% (95% CI 7.9-15.2); combined ICH, cSAH, or both 21.4% (95% CI 16.7-26.9), ischemic stroke 5.1% (95% CI 3.1-8) and death 8.3% (95% CI 5.6-11.8). In multivariable models, there is evidence that patients with probable CAA (compared to possible CAA) had a higher risk of ICH (HR 8.45, 95% CI 1.13-75.5, p = 0.02) and cSAH (HR 3.66, 95% CI 0.84-15.9, p = 0.08) but not ischemic stroke (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.17-1.82, p = 0.33) or mortality (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.16-1.78, p = 0.31). Patients with cSAH associated with probable or possible CAA have high risk of future ICH and recurrent cSAH. Convexity SAH associated with probable (vs possible) CAA is associated with increased risk of ICH, and cSAH but not ischemic stroke. Our data provide precise risk estimates for key vascular events after cSAH associated with CAA which can inform management decisions. The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00415-021-10706-3
    • …
    corecore