29 research outputs found

    Novel low-cost aging sensor

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    Performance degradation of integrated circuits due to aging effects, such as Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI), is becoming of great concern for current and future CMOS technology. Here we introduce an aging sensor able to detect such degradations in the combinational part of a critical data-path. It requires lower area than recently proposed alternative solutions, and a lower or comparable power consumption

    High energy cosmic ray physics with the MACRO experiment at gran sasso

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    The multimuon data collected by the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method. The resulting all-particle spectrum is consistent with EAS measurements but higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct experiments

    Hadronic interaction features using multiple muon events deep underground

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    The MACRO underground experiment performed a systematic experimental study of muon bundle structure. The aim is to gain a better understanding of the features of high energy cosmic ray interactions. The reliability of the hadronic interaction model in reproducing the shower development features at the highest energy can be studied selecting high multiplicity muon bundles. We present here the analisys of the muon lateral distribution (decoherence function) based on two different method( detector dependent and detector independent method), the decoherence function in a high multiplicity event subsample and the search for muon clusters

    High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO .1. Analysis methods and experimental results

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    In this paper, the first of a two-part work, we present the reconstruction and measurement of muon events detected underground by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso (E-mu greater than or equal to 1.3 TeV in atmosphere). The main aim of this work is to discuss the muon multiplicity distribution as measured in the detector. The data sample analyzed consists of 4.4 x 10(6) muon events, of which similar to 263 000 are multiple muons, corresponding to a total live time of 5850 h. In this sample, the observed multiplicities extend above N-mu = 35, with intermuon separations up to 50 m and beyond. Additional complementing measurements, such as the inclusive muon Aux, the angular distribution, and the muon separation distribution (decoherence), are also included. The physical interpretation of the results presented here is reported in the following companion paper

    MACRO absolute muon flux measurement: Comparison with Monte Carlo predictions

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    The vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, in the depth range 3200-7000 hg cm(-2) of standard rock, corresponding to 2-200 TeV/nucleon primary energy range, is presented. An estimation of the muon energy spectrum at the surface will also be shown. The results will be compared with those of other experiments and with the computation of the intensities obtained using a full Monte Carlo calculation with different hypotheses for the primary cosmic ray composition

    High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO .2. Primary spectra and composition

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    Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56 +/- 0.05 for E 5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1 +/- 2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from similar to 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV

    The performance of MACRO liquid scintillator in the search for magnetic monopoles with 10(-3) minus beta minus 1

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    MACRO is designed to make a multiply redundant search for GUT magnetic monopoles over a wide velocity range. The 100 MHz pulse height recorder and synchronous encoder (PHRASE) and the energy reconstruction processor (ERP) are two components of that search, both based on the MACRO liquid scintillator. They are sensitive to monopoles with or without captured nuclei in the range beta similar to 10(-3) to beta similar to 1, Here, the performance of these systems is discussed, including also analysis methods and background evaluations

    Study of primary interactions with multiple muons in MACRO

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    The MACRO underground experiment has started a systematic experimental study of the structure of a very high multiplicity event sample, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the features of the high energy showers. We present here two new analyses: a) the analysis of the distribution of the separation between pairs of high multiplicity muons (''decoherence'' function); b) the search for clusters of muons within high multiplicity events. The first results are discussed together with a comparison between the real data and the Monte Carlo predictions

    Search for GUT monopoles with the MACRO streamer tube and track etch systems

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    High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO .2. Primary spectra and composition

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    Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56 +/- 0.05 for E 5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1 +/- 2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from similar to 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV
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