238 research outputs found

    Trait-based projections of climate change effects on global biome distributions

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    Aim: Climate change will likely modify the global distribution of biomes, but the magnitude of change is debated. Here, we followed a trait-based, statistical approach to model the influence of climate change on the global distribution of biomes. Location: Global. Methods: We predicted the global distribution of plant community mean specific leaf area (SLA), height and wood density as a function of climate and soil characteristics using an ensemble of statistical models. Then, we predicted the probability of occurrence of biomes as a function of the three traits with a classification model. Finally, we projected changes in plant community mean traits and corresponding changes in biome distributions to 2070 for low (RCP 2.6; +1.2°C) and extreme (RCP 8.5; +3.5°C) future climate change scenarios. Results: We estimated that under the low climate change scenario (sub)tropical biomes will expand (forest by 18%–22%, grassland by 9%–14% and xeric shrubland by 5%–8%), whereas tundra and temperate broadleaved and mixed forests contract by 30%–34% and 16%–21%, respectively. Our results also indicate that over 70%–75% of the current distribution of temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and temperate grasslands is projected to shift northwards. These changes become amplified under the extreme climate change scenario in which tundra is projected to lose more than half of its current extent. Main conclusions: Our results indicate considerable imminent alterations in the global distribution of biomes, with possibly major consequences for life on Earth. The level of accuracy of our model given the limited input data and the insights on how trait–environment relationships can influence biome distributions suggest that trait-based correlative approaches are a promising tool to forecast vegetation change and to provide an independent, complementary line of evidence next to process-based vegetation models

    Development of an Optimization Model for the Community-Scale Biomass Power Plant (CSBPP) based on GAMS-BeWhere model framework in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) region, THAILAND

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    Distributed energy generation enables grassroots people to access to clean energy and increase income to region community by participating and having ownership. In Thailand, the new community-power plant promotion scheme was launched in 2020 with the aim to raise the income equality and quality of life of local community. ❑ Biomass supply is one of the most important issues for continuous plant operation. Systematic supply chain management must be done considering availability and logistics, seasonality, quality, and cost. ❑ BeWhere is a techno-economic engineering model for renewable energy systems optimization framework which is used for a case study of CSBPP in EEC region, Thailand as illustrated in Fig.1. It identifies the localization, size and technology of the renewable energy system that should be applied in a specific renewable energy community-based power from the region for the region. ❑ The objective is to develop decision-support tool and a linear mixed integer programming model to determine the optimal geographic locations and sizes of CSBPP using the EEC region as a case study

    Small and slow is safe : on the drought tolerance of tropical tree species

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    Understanding how evolutionary history and the coordination between trait trade-off axes shape the drought tolerance of trees is crucial to predict forest dynamics under climate change. Here, we compiled traits related to drought tolerance and the fast-slow and stature-recruitment trade-off axes in 601 tropical woody species to explore their covariations and phylogenetic signals. We found that xylem resistance to embolism (P50) determines the risk of hydraulic failure, while the functional significance of leaf turgor loss point (TLP) relies on its coordination with water use strategies. P50 and TLP exhibit weak phylogenetic signals and substantial variation within genera. TLP is closely associated with the fast-slow trait axis: slow species maintain leaf functioning under higher water stress. P50 is associated with both the fast-slow and stature-recruitment trait axes: slow and small species exhibit more resistant xylem. Lower leaf phosphorus concentration is associated with more resistant xylem, which suggests a (nutrient and drought) stress-tolerance syndrome in the tropics. Overall, our results imply that: 1) drought tolerance is under strong selective pressure in tropical forests, and TLP and P50 result from the repeated evolutionary adaptation of closely related taxa; and 2) drought tolerance is coordinated with the ecological strategies governing tropical forest demography. These findings provide a physiological basis to interpret the drought-induced shift toward slow-growing, smaller, denser-wooded trees observed in the tropics, with implications for forest restoration programmes

    Global relationships in tree functional traits.

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    Due to massive energetic investments in woody support structures, trees are subject to unique physiological, mechanical, and ecological pressures not experienced by herbaceous plants. Despite a wealth of studies exploring trait relationships across the entire plant kingdom, the dominant traits underpinning these unique aspects of tree form and function remain unclear. Here, by considering 18 functional traits, encompassing leaf, seed, bark, wood, crown, and root characteristics, we quantify the multidimensional relationships in tree trait expression. We? nd that nearly half of trait variation is captured by two axes: one re? ecting leaf economics, the other re? ecting tree size and competition for light. Yet these orthogonal axes reveal strong environmental convergence, exhibiting correlated responses to temperature, moisture, and elevation. By subsequently exploring multidimensional trait relationships, we show that the full dimensionality of trait space is captured by eight distinct clusters, each re? ecting a unique aspect of tree form and function. Collectively, this work identi? es a core set of traits needed to quantify global patterns in functional biodiversity, and it contributes to our fundamental understanding of the functioning of forests worldwide

    Heart failure with preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction across health care settings: an observational study

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    Aims This study aimed to assess the sex-specific distribution of heart failure (HF) with preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction across three health care settings.Methods and results In this descriptive observational study, we retrieved the distribution of HF types [with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF), and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)] for men and women between 65 and 79 years of age in three health care settings from a single country: (i) patients with screening-detected HF in the high-risk community (i.e. those with shortness of breath, frailty, diabetes mellitus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) from four screening studies, (ii) patients with confirmed HF from primary care derived from a single observational study, and (iii) patients with confirmed HF from outpatient cardiology clinics participating in a registry. Among 1407 patients from the high-risk community, 288 had screen-detected HF (15% HFrEF, 12% HFmrEF, 74% HFpEF), and 51% of the screen-detected HF patients were women. In both women (82%) and men (65%), HFpEF was the most prevalent HF type. In the routine general practice population (30 practices, 70 000 individuals), among the 160 confirmed HF cases, 35% had HFrEF, 23% HFmrEF, and 43% HFpEF, and in total, 43% were women. In women, HFpEF was the most prevalent HF type (52%), while in men, this was HFrEF (41%). In outpatient cardiology clinics (n = 34), of the 4742 HF patients (66% HFrEF, 15% HFmrEF, 20% HFpEF), 36% were women. In both women (56%) and men (71%), HFrEF was the most prevalent HF type.Conclusions Both HF types and sex distribution vary considerably in HF patients of 65-79 years of age among health care settings. From the high-risk community through to general practice to the cardiology outpatient setting, there is a shift in HF type from HFpEF to HFrEF and a decrease in the proportion of HF patients that are women

    TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access

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    10.1111/gcb.14904GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY261119-18

    Global relationships in tree functional traits

    No full text
    Due to massive energetic investments in woody support structures, trees are subject to unique physiological, mechanical, and ecological pressures not experienced by herbaceous plants. Despite a wealth of studies exploring trait relationships across the entire plant kingdom, the dominant traits underpinning these unique aspects of tree form and function remain unclear. Here, by considering 18 functional traits, encompassing leaf, seed, bark, wood, crown, and root characteristics, we quantify the multidimensional relationships in tree trait expression. We find that nearly half of trait variation is captured by two axes: one reflecting leaf economics, the other reflecting tree size and competition for light. Yet these orthogonal axes reveal strong environmental convergence, exhibiting correlated responses to temperature, moisture, and elevation. By subsequently exploring multidimensional trait relationships, we show that the full dimensionality of trait space is captured by eight distinct clusters, each reflecting a unique aspect of tree form and function. Collectively, this work identifies a core set of traits needed to quantify global patterns in functional biodiversity, and it contributes to our fundamental understanding of the functioning of forests worldwide.Understanding patterns in woody plant trait relationships and trade-offs is challenging. Here, by applying machine learning and data imputation methods to a global database of georeferenced trait measurements, the authors unravel key relationships in tree functional traits at the global scale

    Global relationships in tree functional traits

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    Due to massive energetic investments in woody support structures, trees are subject to unique physiological, mechanical, and ecological pressures not experienced by herbaceous plants. Despite a wealth of studies exploring trait relationships across the entire plant kingdom, the dominant traits underpinning these unique aspects of tree form and function remain unclear. Here, by considering 18 functional traits, encompassing leaf, seed, bark, wood, crown, and root characteristics, we quantify the multidimensional relationships in tree trait expression. We find that nearly half of trait variation is captured by two axes: one reflecting leaf economics, the other reflecting tree size and competition for light. Yet these orthogonal axes reveal strong environmental convergence, exhibiting correlated responses to temperature, moisture, and elevation. By subsequently exploring multidimensional trait relationships, we show that the full dimensionality of trait space is captured by eight distinct clusters, each reflecting a unique aspect of tree form and function. Collectively, this work identifies a core set of traits needed to quantify global patterns in functional biodiversity, and it contributes to our fundamental understanding of the functioning of forests worldwide.Environmental Biolog
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