140 research outputs found

    Cytotoxic and antigen presenting functions of T helper-1-activated dendritic cells

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    Although primarily defined by their cardinal antigen-presenting function, dendritic cells (DCs) are also equipped with cytotoxic properties. We have recently reported that DCs activated by IFNγ-secreting Th-1 lymphocytes can kill cancer cells and subsequently present the acquired tumor-derived antigens to T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo

    The Dendritic Cell-Regulatory T Lymphocyte Crosstalk Contributes to Tumor-Induced Tolerance

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    Tumor cells commonly escape from elimination by innate and adaptive immune responses using multiple strategies among which is the active suppression of effector immune cells. Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) and tolerogenic dendritic cells play essential roles in the establishment and persistence of cancer-induced immunosuppression. Differentiating dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to tumor-derived factors may be arrested at an immature stage becoming inept at initiating immune responses and may induce effector T-cell anergy or deletion. These tolerogenic DCs, which accumulate in patients with different types of cancers, are also involved in the generation of Treg. In turn, Treg that expand during tumor progression contribute to the immune tolerance of cancer by impeding DCs' ability to orchestrate immune responses and by directly inhibiting antitumoral T lymphocytes. Herein we review these bidirectional communications between DCs and Treg as they relate to the promotion of cancer-induced tolerance

    Modulation des cellules dendritiques et macrophages (implications dans le cancer et l'athérosclérose)

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    Au cours de ma thèse, j ai étudié la fonction cytotoxique des cellules dendritiques (DC) de patients cancéreux comparée à celle de sujets sains. Nous avons montré que les DC générées à partir des monocytes du sang périphérique peuvent acquérir des capacités cytotoxiques importantes après activation par des faibles doses de LPS. Le potentiel cytotoxique des DC générées à partir de patients cancéreux est comparable à celui de sujets sains. Nous avons identifié le mécanisme de cytotoxicité qui fait intervenir la production de peroxynitrite. Après avoir tué les cellules tumorales, les DC phagocytent des fragments tumoraux, surexpriment des molécules de costimulation et induisent la prolifération des lymphocytes. Un deuxième axe de recherche au cours de ma thèse a consisté en l étude des macrophages inflammatoires et de leur implication dans l athérosclérose. Les macrophages sécrètent la CETP (cholesteryl ester transfert protein), protéine-cible des récepteurs LXR (liver X receptor). Nous avons montré que l expression de la CETP, en réponse aux agonistes LXR, n est pas augmentée dans les macrophages inflammatoires. Ceci suggère que les macrophages inflammatoires ne participeraient pas à l augmentation du pool plasmatique de CETP en cas de traitement par des agonistes LXR.During my thesis, I studied the cytotoxic function of dendritic cells (DC) from cancer patients and compared it to DC from healthy donors. Our results indicate that human monocyte-derived DC can acquire strong cytotoxic activity toward tumor cells after activation with low dose of LPS. The cytotoxic potential of DC derived from cancer patients was almost the same as the one generated from healthy donors. We identified the tumor cell killing mechanism which involves peroxynitrite release. After killing of cancer cells, DC are capable of engulfing dead tumor cell fragments and overexpress the costimulatory molecules necessary for T cell proliferation. A second study consisted in an analysis of inflammatory macrophages and their significance in atherosclerosis. Macrophages produce CETP (cholesteryl ester transfert protein), a target for LXR (liver X receptor) receptors. Our results show that LXR-mediated induction of CETP expression is lost in inflammatory macrophages. Our study suggests that inflammatory macrophages may not increase the circulating CETP pool on LXR agonist treatment.DIJON-BU Doc.électronique (212319901) / SudocSudocFranceF

    Impact of BRAFV600E mutation on aggressiveness and outcomes in adult clonal histiocytosis

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    Histiocytoses encompass a wide spectrum of diseases, all characterized by tissue infiltration by CD68+ histiocytes. Most adult histiocytoses are considered clonal diseases because they highlight recurrent somatic mutations in the MAP-kinase pathway gene, primarily BRAF. The presence of BRAF mutation is associated with widespread disease in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) or cardiovascular/neurological involvement in Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD). Nevertheless, few data are available on adult clonal histiocytosis. This is why we have conducted a retrospective study of all patients with clonal histiocytosis in our institution and present the data according to the presence of BRAF mutation. Among 27 adult patients (10 ECD, 10 LCH, 5 Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD), and 3 mixed ECD/LCH), 11 (39%) have BRAF mutation with gain of function (n = 9) and deletion (n = 2). Those patients had frequent multicentric disease with risk organ involvement, especially the brain and cardiovascular system. They had frequent associated myeloid neoplasms (mostly chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) and received more frequently targeted therapy as the front-line therapy. Nevertheless, its presence did not affect the overall survival or relapse-free survival probably due to the emergence of efficient therapies. To conclude, rapid and accurate molecular establishment in adult clonal histiocytoses is crucial because BRAFV600E mutation correlates with multicentric disease with organ involvement and incomplete metabolic response

    Cytotoxic dendritic cells generated from cancer patients.

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    International audienceKnown for years as professional APCs, dendritic cells (DCs) are also endowed with tumoricidal activity. This dual role of DC as killers and messengers may have important implications for tumor immunotherapy. However, the tumoricidal activity of DCs has mainly been investigated in animal models. Cancer cells inhibit antitumor immune responses using numerous mechanisms, including the induction of immunosuppressive/ tolerogenic DCs that have lost their ability to present Ags in an immunogenic manner. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of generating tumor killer DCs from patients with advanced-stage cancers. We demonstrate that human monocyte-derived DCs are endowed with significant cytotoxic activity against tumor cells following activation with LPS. The mechanism of DC-mediated tumor cell killing primarily involves peroxynitrites. This observed cytotoxic activity is restricted to immature DCs. Additionally, after killing, these cytotoxic DCs are able to activate tumor Ag-specific T cells. These observations may open important new perspectives for the use of autologous cytotoxic DCs in cancer immunotherapy strategies

    Fatigue is independently associated with disease activity assessed using the Physician Global Assessment but not the SLEDAI in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Objectives To analyse whether reported fatigue, one of the most challenging manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), may bias the assessment of disease activity in SLE according to the Physician Global Assessment (PGA). Methods Patients from the Lupus BioBank of the upper Rhein database, a cross-sectional multicentre collection of detailed clinical and biological data from patients with SLE, were included. Patients had to fulfil the 1997 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE and the PGA (0-3 scale) at the time of inclusion had to be available. Fatigue was assessed according to the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions. Univariate and multivariate regression models were built to determine which variables were associated with the PGA. Results A total of 350 patients (89% female; median age: 42 years, IQR: 34-52) were included. The median Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) score was 4 (IQR: 2-6). Of these 350 patients, 257 (73%) reported significant fatigue. The PGA (p=0.004) but not the SELENA-SLEDAI (p=0.43) was significantly associated with fatigue. Both fatigue and SELENA-SLEDAI were independently associated with the PGA in two different multivariate models. Conclusion Fatigue is independently associated with disease activity assessed using the PGA but not the SLEDAI. These findings highlight the fact that the PGA should capture only objectively active disease manifestations in order to improve its reliability

    Splenic TFH expansion participates in B-cell differentiation and antiplatelet-antibody production during immune thrombocytopenia

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    Antiplatelet-antibody-producing B cells play a key role immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) pathogenesis; however, little is known about T-cell dysregulations that support B-cell differentiation. During the past decade, T follicular helper cells (TFHs) have been characterized as the main T-cell subset within secondary lymphoid organs that promotes B-cell differentiation leading to antibody class-switch recombination and secretion. Herein, we characterized TFHs within the spleen of 8 controls and 13 ITP patients. We show that human splenic TFHs are the main producers of interleukin (IL)-21, express CD40 ligand(CD154), and are located within the germinal center of secondary follicles. Compared with controls, splenic TFH frequency is higher in ITP patients and correlates with germinal center and plasma cell percentages that are also increased. In vitro, IL-21 stimulation combined with an anti-CD40 agonist antibody led to the differentiation of splenic B cells into plasma cells and to the secretion of antiplatelet antibodies in ITP patients. Overall, these results point out the involvement of TFH in ITP pathophysiology and the potential interest of IL-21 and CD40 as therapeutic targets in ITP

    Emerging Therapies in Immune Thrombocytopenia

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    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by peripheral platelet destruction and inappropriate bone marrow production. The management of ITP is based on the utilization of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, rituximab, thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs), immunosuppressants and splenectomy. Recent advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis have opened new fields of therapeutic interventions. The phagocytosis of platelets by splenic macrophages could be inhibited by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) or Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors. The clearance of antiplatelet antibodies could be accelerated by blocking the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), while new strategies targeting B cells and/or plasma cells could improve the reduction of pathogenic autoantibodies. The inhibition of the classical complement pathway that participates in platelet destruction also represents a new target. Platelet desialylation has emerged as a new mechanism of platelet destruction in ITP, and the inhibition of neuraminidase could dampen this phenomenon. T cells that support the autoimmune B cell response also represent an interesting target. Beyond the inhibition of the autoimmune response, new TPO-RAs that stimulate platelet production have been developed. The upcoming challenges will be the determination of predictive factors of response to treatments at a patient scale to optimize their management