42 research outputs found

    Naked Singularity Explosion

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    It is known that the gravitational collapse of a dust ball results in naked singularity formation from an initial density profile which is physically reasonable. In this paper, we show that explosive radiation is emitted during the formation process of the naked singularity.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, Accepted for Publication in Phys. Rev. D as a Rapid Communicatio

    Semiclassical Instability of the Cauchy Horizon in Self-Similar Collapse

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    Generic spherically symmetric self-similar collapse results in strong naked-singularity formation. In this paper we are concerned with particle creation during a naked-singularity formation in spherically symmetric self-similar collapse without specifying the collapsing matter. In the generic case, the power of particle emission is found to be proportional to the inverse square of the remaining time to the Cauchy horizon (CH). The constant of proportion can be arbitrarily large in the limit to marginally naked singularity. Therefore, the unbounded power is especially striking in the case that an event horizon is very close to the CH because the emitted energy can be arbitrarily large in spite of a cutoff expected from quantum gravity. Above results suggest the instability of the CH in spherically symmetric self-similar spacetime from quantum field theory and seem to support the existence of a semiclassical cosmic censor. The divergence of redshifts and blueshifts of emitted particles is found to cause the divergence of power to positive or negative infinity, depending on the coupling manner of scalar fields to gravity. On the other hand, it is found that there is a special class of self-similar spacetimes in which the semiclassical instability of the CH is not efficient. The analyses in this paper are based on the geometric optics approximation, which is justified in two dimensions but needs justification in four dimensions.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, minor errors corrected and some sentences added in the introduction, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    No Go Theorem for Kinematic Self-Similarity with A Polytropic Equation of State

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    We have investigated spherically symmetric spacetimes which contain a perfect fluid obeying the polytropic equation of state and admit a kinematic self-similar vector of the second kind which is neither parallel nor orthogonal to the fluid flow. We have assumed two kinds of polytropic equations of state and shown in general relativity that such spacetimes must be vacuum.Comment: 5 pages, no figures. Revtex. One word added to the title. Final version to appear in Physical Review D as a Brief Repor

    Instability of black hole formation under small pressure perturbations

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    We investigate here the spectrum of gravitational collapse endstates when arbitrarily small perfect fluid pressures are introduced in the classic black hole formation scenario as described by Oppenheimer, Snyder and Datt (OSD) [1]. This extends a previous result on tangential pressures [2] to the more physically realistic scenario of perfect fluid collapse. The existence of classes of pressure perturbations is shown explicitly, which has the property that injecting any smallest pressure changes the final fate of the dynamical collapse from a black hole to a naked singularity. It is therefore seen that any smallest neighborhood of the OSD model, in the space of initial data, contains collapse evolutions that go to a naked singularity outcome. This gives an intriguing insight on the nature of naked singularity formation in gravitational collapse.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure, several modifications to match published version on GR

    Power, energy, and spectrum of a naked singularity explosion

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    Naked singularity occurs in the gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous dust ball from an initial density profile which is physically reasonable. We show that explosive radiation is emitted during the formation process of the naked singularity. The energy flux is proportional to (tCHt)3/2(t_{\rm CH}-t)^{-3/2} for a minimally coupled massless scalar field, while is proportional to (tCHt)1(t_{\rm CH}-t)^{-1} for a conformally coupled massless scalar field, where tCHtt_{\rm CH}-t is the `remained time' until the distant observer could observe the singularity if the naked singularity was formed. As a consequence, the radiated energy grows unboundedly for both scalar fields. The amount of the power and the energy depends on parameters which characterize the initial density profile but do not depend on the gravitational mass of the cloud. In particular, there is characteristic frequency s\nu_{s} of singularity above which the divergent energy is radiated. The energy flux is dominated by particles of which the wave length is about tCHtt_{\rm CH}-t at each moment. The observed total spectrum is nonthermal, i.e., dN/d(/s)1\nu dN/d\nu \sim (\nu/\nu_{s})^{-1} for >s\nu>\nu_{s}. If the naked singularity formation could continue until a considerable fraction of the total energy of the dust cloud is radiated, the radiated energy would reach about 1054(M/M)10^{54}(M/M_{\odot}) erg. The calculations are based on the geometrical optics approximation which turns out to be consistent as a rough order estimate. The analysis does not depend on whether or not the naked singularity occurs in its exact meaning. This phenomenon may provide a new candidate for a source of ultra high energy cosmic rays or a central engine of gamma ray bursts.Comment: 34 pages, 13 postscript figures included, to appear in Phys. Rev. D, grammatical errors correcte

    Black holes vs. naked singularities formation in collapsing Einstein's clusters

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    Non-static, spherically symmetric clusters of counter-rotating particles, of the type first introduced by Einstein, are analysed here. The initial data space can be parameterized in terms of three arbitrary functions, namely; initial density, velocity and angular momentum profiles. The final state of collapse, black hole or naked singularity, turns out to depend on the order of the first non-vanishing derivatives of such functions at the centre. The work extends recent results by Harada, Iguchi and Nakao.Comment: 13 pages, LaTeX format. To appear in Physical Review

    Spherical Universes with Anisotropic Pressure

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    Einstein's equations are solved for spherically symmetric universes composed of dust with tangential pressure provided by angular momentum, L(R), which differs from shell to shell. The metric is given in terms of the shell label, R, and the proper time, tau, experienced by the dust particles. The general solution contains four arbitrary functions of R - M(R), L(R), E(R) and r(0,R). The solution is described by quadratures, which are in general elliptic integrals. It provides a generalization of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution. We present a discussion of the types of solution, and some examples. The relationship to Einstein clusters and the significance for gravitational collapse is also discussed.Comment: 24 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Nakedness and curvature strength of shell-focusing singularity in the spherically symmetric space-time with vanishing radial pressure

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    It was recently shown that the metric functions which describe a spherically symmetric space-time with vanishing radial pressure can be explicitly integrated. We investigate the nakedness and curvature strength of the shell-focusing singularity in that space-time. If the singularity is naked, the relation between the circumferential radius and the Misner-Sharp mass is given by R2y0mR\approx 2y_{0} m^{\beta} with 1/3<1 1/3<\beta\le 1 along the first radial null geodesic from the singularity. The \beta is closely related to the curvature strength of the naked singularity. For example, for the outgoing or ingoing null geodesic, if the strong curvature condition (SCC) by Tipler holds, then \beta must be equal to 1. We define the ``gravity dominance condition'' (GDC) for a geodesic. If GDC is satisfied for the null geodesic, both SCC and the limiting focusing condition (LFC) by Kr\'olak hold for =1\beta=1 and y01y_{0}\ne 1, not SCC but only LFC holds for 1/2<11/2\le \beta <1, and neither holds for 1/3<<1/21/3<\beta <1/2, for the null geodesic. On the other hand, if GDC is satisfied for the timelike geodesic r=0r=0, both SCC and LFC are satisfied for the timelike geodesic, irrespective of the value of \beta. Several examples are also discussed.Comment: 11 pages, Accepted for Publication in Classical and Quantum Gravity, References Updated, Grammatical Errors Correcte

    Self-similar and charged spheres in the diffusion approximation

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    We study spherical, charged and self--similar distributions of matter in the diffusion approximation. We propose a simple, dynamic but physically meaningful solution. For such a solution we obtain a model in which the distribution becomes static and changes to dust. The collapse is halted with damped mass oscillations about the absolute value of the total charge.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figure

    Relativistic shells: Dynamics, horizons, and shell crossing

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    We consider the dynamics of timelike spherical thin matter shells in vacuum. A general formalism for thin shells matching two arbitrary spherical spacetimes is derived, and subsequently specialized to the vacuum case. We first examine the relative motion of two dust shells by focusing on the dynamics of the exterior shell, whereby the problem is reduced to that of a single shell with different active Schwarzschild masses on each side. We then examine the dynamics of shells with non-vanishing tangential pressure pp, and show that there are no stable--stationary, or otherwise--solutions for configurations with a strictly linear barotropic equation of state, p=p=\alpha\sigma, where \sigma is the proper surface energy density and (1,1)\alpha\in(-1,1). For {\em arbitrary} equations of state, we show that, provided the weak energy condition holds, the strong energy condition is necessary and sufficient for stability. We examine in detail the formation of trapped surfaces, and show explicitly that a thin boundary layer causes the apparent horizon to evolve discontinuously. Finally, we derive an analytical (necessary and sufficient) condition for neighboring shells to cross, and compare the discrete shell model with the well-known continuous Lema\^{\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi dust case.Comment: 25 pages, revtex4, 4 eps figs; published in Phys. Rev.
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