72 research outputs found

    Gateways to Occupational Success: Educational Mobility and Attainment for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

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    Education is a gateway to occupational success for emerging adults. Differences in access and uptake in higher education are thus a primary explanation for social stratification. In this chapter, the authors consider what might explain the Indigenous gap in educational attainment. Using multiple cohorts of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Youth, they show that the typical processes of educational mobility are similar across Indigenous and non-Indigenous emerging adults and have remained fairly constant in recent decades. Rather, educational inequality appears to result from lower attainment in both Indigenous parents and their children. Pursuing this lower level of attainment, the authors show that standard Western models of educational attainment fail to fully explain Indigenous educational inequality. They suggest a need to consider the unique knowledges and experiences of Indigenous people. They also argue that research needs to pay greater attention to the intersection between Indigenous status and other minority or marginalized statuses

    Bigger but not always better: Size and democracy in Israeli amalgamated local governments

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    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Urban Affairs on 17 Jan 2017, available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/07352166.2016.1262701.This study discusses the amalgamation of local governments as a method of creating larger and more effective local governments that place fewer burdens on central government budgets. Beyond economies of scale, our findings from a case study of Israel’s 2003 amalgamation plan support the democracy claim. This study reveals that amalgamation reduces local democracy in terms of voter turnout and representation. The likelihood of having a greater level of local democracy increases in smaller local governments, in terms of population. The new efficiency and democracy approach suggests that a new amalgamated local government must be sufficiently small to maximize local democracy. At the same time, new amalgamated local governments need to be sufficiently large to maximize economies of scale. This study uses field research with in-depth interviews to enhance the findings of the empirical analysis

    Gateways to occupational success: educational mobility and attainment for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

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    DescriptionThe school-to-work transition is a critical part of the human life-span for young adults, their families, and society. The timing of the transition varies greatly and its co-occurrence with a number of other life transitions make it challenging to summarize or generalize. Individual differences and normative developmental factors, as well as external contextual factors such as global pandemics, changing economic circumstances, workplace demands, and cultural shifts, intersect to create a range of challenges and opportunities for those navigating this transition.Written by internationally renowned scholars in developmental psychology, applied psychology, counseling, and sociology, the chapters in this book highlight the trends, issues, and actions that researchers, academics, practitioners, and policy makers need to consider in order to effectively support young adults' transition to work pathways. This volume provides an explicitly international perspective on this area, broad coverage of psychological topics on the school-to-work transition, and an inclusive focus on sub-groups and minority groups, making it a must-read for those who support young adults as they move from school to work

    Indigenous Peoples and the Australian census: value, trust, and participation

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    In this commentary we, as a group of Indigenous academics, trace the relationship between the Australian census and Indigenous peoples, addressing historical and present dimensions through the dual lens of value and trust. Although we come from various disciplines including statistics, public health, social science, and human geography, our approach and analysis is firmly rooted in, and builds upon, postcolonial demography that Kukutai & Taylor (2012 p. 14) state, “highlights the epistemological and methodological shortcomings of applied demographic research on Indigenous peoples, and generates calls for more innovative approaches.

    Resisting the racist silence: When racism and education collide

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    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a fuller, evidence-based understanding of the nature of systemic racism targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students (and their communities). From this foundation, this chapter also explores the ways in which teachers and schools may fight racism by not only committing to anti-racist practices, but also by providing culturally safe and strengthening school environments that support the identities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and their communities. By weaving the voices of Aboriginal (D’harawal) Elders and Knowledge Holders with existing empirical research highlighting the enduring and complex nature of racism within Australia (and its schools), this chapter privileges the voices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (and international First Nations) peoples and scholars who too often have been silenced in discussion on racism itself. This approach reveals that racism is still endemic within Australia, that racism is much more than individualistic ‘sticks and stones’ experiences (but is prevalent within institutions and the very cultural milieu of Australia) and that evidence suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are fully aware of this. Teachers and schools must seek to understand and combat the complex web of racism that has embedded itself in all levels of society (including education systems)

    A Phase 2, Double-Blind, randomized, Dose-Ranging trial Of Reldesemtiv in patients with ALS

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    To evaluate safety, dose response, and preliminary efficacy of reldesemtiv over 12 weeks in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Patients (≤2 years since diagnosis) with slow upright vital capacity (SVC) of ≥60% were randomized 1:1:1:1 to reldesemtiv 150, 300, or 450 mg twice daily (bid) or placebo; active treatment was 12 weeks with 4-week follow-up. Primary endpoint was change in percent predicted SVC at 12 weeks; secondary measures included ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and muscle strength mega-score. Results: Patients (N = 458) were enrolled; 85% completed 12-week treatment. The primary analysis failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.11); secondary endpoints showed no statistically significant effects (ALSFRS-R, p = 0.09; muscle strength mega-score, p = 0.31). Post hoc analyses pooling all active reldesemtiv-treated patients compared against placebo showed trends toward benefit in all endpoints (progression rate for SVC, ALSFRS-R, and muscle strength mega-score (nominal p values of 0.10, 0.01 and 0.20 respectively)). Reldesemtiv was well tolerated, with nausea and fatigue being the most common side effects. A dose-dependent decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was noted, and transaminase elevations were seen in approximately 5% of patients. Both hepatic and renal abnormalities trended toward resolution after study drug discontinuation. Conclusions: Although the primary efficacy analysis did not demonstrate statistical significance, there were trends favoring reldesemtiv for all three endpoints, with effect sizes generally regarded as clinically important. Tolerability was good; modest hepatic and renal abnormalities were reversible. The impact of reldesemtiv on patients with ALS should be assessed in a pivotal Phase 3 trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03160898

    Knowledge and power: the tale of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander data

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    The phrase ‘knowledge is power’ is understoodto mean that if individuals and groups ina society attain knowledge through transmissionof knowledge (education), they attain wisdom.This wisdom is then used to assert power (Baconand Montagu 1857). However, as Foucault (1990)argues, knowledge power recreates itself in acircular process. Therefore, who determines whatknowledge is — and who has the right to speak tothat knowledge — is important.In this commentary we critique the power andknowledge structures of the economic, political,social and cultural resources that are Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander data. We then challengethe current holders of Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslander data and the colonial worldview fromwhich such data are converted into knowledges.To map a new path, we offer solutions thatare embedded in the concept of IndigenousData Sovereignty (IDSov) and Indigenous DataGovernance (IDGov)

    Working towards accountability in embedding Indigenous studies: Evidence from an Indigenous Graduate Attribute evaluation instrument

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    © Australian Council for Educational Research 2019. Whilst Indigenous Graduate Attributes – or the embedding Indigenous cultural competencies within broad graduate attributes – are becoming increasingly popular within some universities, it is essential that universities be held accountable for the realisation of such policies. Considering that Australian Indigenous Studies – an essential component of Indigenous Graduate Attributes – is a highly contested space where colonial and Indigenous knowledges collide, this article presents evidence from analyses, engaging with Indigenous Standpoints, aimed at evaluating critically the degree to which university subjects may contribute to the realisation of Indigenous Graduate Attributes. Results identify not only an array of psychometrically sound factors which measure Student Knowledges and Attitudes to Indigenous Issues as well as Applied Indigenous Learning, but also indicate that the embedding of Australian Indigenous Studies content may vary across disciplines. In addition, results show that the impact of such embedding on student attitudes also varies greatly according to discipline, with positive, negative, and contradicting results across disciplines. These findings strongly suggest that any commitment to embedding Indigenous Graduate Attributes must be monitored very carefully

    Trends in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Multidomain Well-Being: Decomposing Persistent, Maturation, and Period Effects in Emerging Adulthood

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    © 2018 Society for the Study of Emerging Adulthood and SAGE Publications. We explore whether disadvantage exists in domain-specific happiness with Indigenous youth of Australia. Data were collected from 52,270 Australians aged 15–28 years, 4% of whom were Indigenous, and came from four birth cohorts with data collected between the years 1997 and 2013. Random and fixed effects decomposed differences in well-being into persistent (present at the earliest wave and consistent over time), maturation (changes over age), and period (changes in response to a particular year) components. Results suggested that happiness differences were small to moderate but favored non-Indigenous groups. There were small, persistent differences in happiness with social and future prospects and developmental differences for happiness with life and government. Period effects were observed for happiness with the government. This research reveals that a nuanced approach to Indigenous well-being is needed including not just a multidimensional approach but also one that is sensitive of the means by which disadvantage may emerge

    Creating a degree-focused pedagogical framework to guide Indigenous graduate attribute curriculum development

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    © 2018, Springer Nature B.V. Globally, rapid technological advancement is creating widespread concern about workforces of the future, and universities are expected to produce highly skilled graduates to meet the unremitting demands of knowledge economies. In this context, graduate attributes are a means for developing employability skills and an avenue for institutions to demonstrate to employers and potential graduates that the requisite skills will be developed during a degree. To meet these needs, graduate attributes tend to emphasise a range of generic abilities such as team work, communicating effectively, or critical thinking. While these soft skills are common in suites of graduate attributes, more recently, a next generation of attributes is emerging. The curriculum has now become a site for critical global issues such as sustainability. Also, globalisation is driving universities to foster graduates’ intercultural and international skills, reflecting a diversifying and internationalised workforce. In Australian universities, and those in other colonised nations such as Canada and New Zealand, there is a growing emphasis on ensuring that graduates engage with Indigenous content and develop the capacity to work effectively with and for Indigenous peoples to address inequities and promote social justice. Using a case example from an Australian university curriculum project, we describe a degree framework developed to guide the institution wide implementation of Indigenous graduate attributes. Although the case context is quite specific, the guiding principles have widespread relevance for embedding graduate attributes into university curricula
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