1,934 research outputs found

    ‘Mental fight’ and ‘seeing & writing’ in Virginia Woolf and William Blake

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    This thesis is the first full-length study to assess the writer and publisher Virginia Woolf’s (1882-1941) responses to the radical Romantic poet-painter, and engraver, William Blake (1757-1827). I trace Woolf’s public and private, overt and subtle references to Blake in fiction, essays, notebooks, diaries, letters and drawings. I have examined volumes in Leonard and Virginia Woolf’s library that are pertinent, directly and indirectly, to Woolf’s understanding of Blake. I focus on Woolf’s key phrases about Blake: ‘Mental fight’, and ‘seeing & writing.’ I consider the other phrases Woolf uses to think about Blake in the context of these two categories. Woolf and Blake are both interested in combining visual and verbal aesthetics (‘seeing & writing’). They are both critical of their respective cultures (‘Mental fight’). Woolf mentions ‘seeing & writing’ in connection to Blake in a 1940 notebook. She engages with Blake’s ‘Mental fight’ in ‘Thoughts on Peace in an Air Raid’ (1940). I map late nineteenth and early twentieth-century opinion on Blake and explore Woolf’s engagement with Blake in these wider contexts. I make use of the circumstantial detail of Woolf’s friendship with the great Blake collector and scholar, Geoffrey Keynes (1887-1982), brother of Bloomsbury economist John Maynard Keynes. Woolf was party to the Blake centenary celebrations courtesy of Geoffrey Keynes’s organisation of the centenary exhibition in London in 1927. Chapter One introduces Woolf’s explicit references to Blake and examines the record of Woolf scholarship that unites Woolf and Blake. To see how her predecessors had responded, Chapter Two examines the nineteenth-century interest in Blake and Woolf’s engagement with key nineteenth-century Blakeans. Chapter Three looks at the modernist, early twentieth-century engagement with Blake, to contextualise Woolf’s position on Blake. Chapter Four assesses how Woolf and Blake use ‘Mental fight’ to oppose warmongering and fascist politics. Chapter Five is about what Woolf and Blake write and think about the country and the city. Chapter Six discusses Woolf’s reading of John Milton (1608-1674) in relation to her interest in Blake, drawing on the evidence of Blake’s intense reading of Milton. Chapter Seven examines further miscellaneous continuities between Woolf and Blake. Chapter Eight proposes, in conclusion, that we can only form an impression of Woolf’s Blake. The thesis also has three appendices. First, a chronology of key publications which chart Blake’s reputation as well as Woolf’s allusions to Blake. Second a list all of Blake’s poetry represented in Woolf’s library including contents page. The third lists all the other volumes in Woolf’s library that proved relevant. Although Woolf’s writing is the subject of this thesis, my project necessitates an attempt to recover how Blake was understood and misunderstood by numerous writers in the early twentieth century. The thesis argues Blake is a model radical Romantic who combines the visual and the verbal and that Woolf sees him as a kindred artist

    Utilizing Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization for Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

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    Hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) of complex mixtures requires a fast, reproducible, and high peak capacity separation prior to MS detection. The current paradigm relies on liquid chromatography (LC) with fast gradients performed at low temperatures to minimize back exchange. Unfortunately, under these conditions, the efficiency of LC is limited due to resistance to mass transfer, reducing the capability to analyze complex samples. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), on the other hand, is not limited by resistance to mass transfer, enabling very rapid separations that are not adversely affected by low temperature. Previously, we have demonstrated an integrated microfluidic device coupling CE with electrospray ionization (ESI) capable of very rapid and high efficiency separations. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of this microchip CE-ESI device for HX MS. High speed CE-ESI of a bovine hemoglobin pepsin digestion was performed in 1 minute with a peak capacity of 62 versus a similar LC separation performed in 7 minutes with peak capacity of 31. A room temperature CE method performed in 1.25 minutes provided similar deuterium retention as an 8.5 minute LC method conducted at 0 °C. Separation of a complex mixture with CE was done with considerably better speed and nearly triple the peak capacity than the equivalent separation by LC. Overall the results indicate the potential utility of microchip CE-ESI for HX MS

    Beef production from feedstuffs conserved using new technologies to reduce negative environmental impacts

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    End of project reportMost (ca. 86%) Irish farms make some silage. Besides directly providing feed for livestock, the provision of grass silage within integrated grassland systems makes an important positive contribution to effective grazing management and improved forage utilisation by grazing animals, and to effective feed budgeting by farmers. It can also contribute to maintaining the content of desirable species in pastures, and to livestock not succumbing to parasites at sensitive times of the year. Furthermore, the optimal recycling of nutrients collected from housed livestock can often be best achieved by spreading the manures on the land used for producing the conserved feed. On most Irish farms, grass silage will remain the main conserved forage for feeding to livestock during winter for the foreseeable future. However, on some farms high yields of whole-crop (i.e. grain + straw) cereals such as wheat, barley and triticale, and of forage maize, will be an alternative option provided that losses during harvesting, storage and feedout are minimised and that input costs are restrained. These alternative forages have the potential to reliably support high levels of animal performance while avoiding the production of effluent. Their production and use however will need to advantageously integrate into ruminant production systems. A range of technologies can be employed for crop production and conservation, and for beef production, and the optimal options need to be identified. Beef cattle being finished indoors are offered concentrate feedstuffs at rates that range from modest inputs through to ad libitum access. Such concentrates frequently contain high levels of cereals such as barley or wheat. These cereals are generally between 14% to 18% moisture content and tend to be rolled shortly before being included in coarse rations or are more finely processed prior to pelleting. Farmers thinking of using ‘high-moisture grain’ techniques for preserving and processing cereal grains destined for feeding to beef cattle need to know how the yield, conservation efficiency and feeding value of such grains compares with grains conserved using more conventional techniques. European Union policy strongly encourages a sustainable and multifunctional agriculture. Therefore, in addition to providing European consumers with quality food produced within approved systems, agriculture must also contribute positively to the conservation of natural resources and the upkeep of the rural landscape. Plastics are widely used in agriculture and their post-use fate on farms must not harm the environment - they must be managed to support the enduring sustainability of farming systems. There is an absence of information on the efficacy of some new options for covering and sealing silage with plastic sheeting and tyres, and an absence of an inventory of the use, re-use and post-use fate of plastic film on farms. Irish cattle farmers operate a large number of beef production systems, half of which use dairy bred calves. In the current, continuously changing production and market conditions, new beef systems must be considered. A computer package is required that will allow the rapid, repeatable simulation and assessment of alternate beef production systems using appropriate, standardised procedures. There is thus a need to construct, evaluate and utilise computer models of components of beef production systems and to develop mathematical relationships to link system components into a network that would support their integration into an optimal system model. This will provide a framework to integrate physical and financial on-farm conditions with models for estimating feed supply and animal growth patterns. Cash flow and profit/loss results will be developed. This will help identify optimal systems, indicate the cause of failure of imperfect systems and identify areas where applied research data are currently lacking, or more basic research is required

    Ontogenetic movements of cod in Arctic fjords and the Barents Sea as revealed by otolith microchemistry

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    The distribution of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in northern Norwegian waters is expanding eastward and northward in the Barents Sea and along western Svalbard. In the Arctic fjords of Svalbard, cod has become abundant, but little is known about the biology, origin, or residence patterns of these populations. To address this issue, we used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to quantify the trace elemental composition of cod otoliths at age-0, age-3 and the year of spawning at five distinct locations in northern Norway and western Svalbard. Chemical composition data was used to identify natal sources of cod, their broad-scale migration patterns, and to determine if cod are currently resident in Arctic fjords. Our results suggest that cod collected at Kongsfjord, Isfjord, outside Svalbard, Lofoten, and Porsangerfjord were recruited mainly from the Barents Sea, conforming to the Northeast Arctic cod ecotype. The degree of chemical overlap between Porsangerfjord and Isfjord cod, however, varied with fish age, suggesting individual movements consistent with the Norwegian coastal cod ecotype. Finally, the chemical composition of mature fish at Isfjord, and to a lesser extent Kongsfjord, suggests that cod from the Barents Sea might have recently established residency in these two Arctic fjords.acceptedVersio

    Serious mental health diagnoses in children on the child protection register: a record linkage study.

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    Children with experience of maltreatment, abuse or neglect are known to have a higher prevalence of poor mental health. Child Protection Services identify children most at risk of harm and in need of intervention. Mental healthcare usage in this population is not well understood as registration data is not routinely linked to health records. We undertook data linkage to describe the population on the register, their mental healthcare usage and to calculate age- and sex-specific incidence rates of mental health outcomes. We analysed records from the Aberdeen City Council Child Protection Register and for mental health prescribing and referrals to child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) for the NHS Grampian region between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2022. We identified 1,498 individuals with a Child Protection Register registration, of which 70% were successfully matched to health records. 20% of registrations occurred before birth and the median age of registration was 3 years. 10.1% of children with a registration ever received a mental health prescription, 5.1% for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 1.7% for treatment of depression. 18.9% received a referral to specialist outpatient Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Age- and sex- standardised incidence rates for mental health prescribing and referrals are higher for children with a child protection registration compared to the general population. Children identified as being at significant risk of harm and involved with child protection services are at greater risk of seeking or receiving professional mental health support than their peers. Clinical services should investigate additional ways to support this population’s mental well-being as a priority. Efforts to reduce the exposure of children to potentially harmful environments at a societal level should also be pursued

    Circularly polarized luminescence from helically chiral N,N,O,O-boron-chelated dipyrromethenes

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    Helically chiral N,N,O,O-boron chelated dipyrromethenes showed solution-phase circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) in the red region of the visible spectrum (λem(max) from 621 to 663 nm). The parent dipyrromethene is desymmetrised through O chelation of boron by the 3,5-ortho-phenolic substituents, inducing a helical chirality in the fluorophore. The combination of high luminescence dissymmetry factors (|glum| up to 4.7 ×10−3) and fluorescence quantum yields (ΦF up to 0.73) gave exceptionally efficient circularly polarized red emission from these simple small organic fluorophores, enabling future application in CPL-based bioimaging

    1989: Abilene Christian College Bible Lectures - Full Text

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    CHRIST AND CULTURE: The Problem of Secularism Being the Abilene Christian University Annual Bible Lectures 1989 Published by ACU PRESS 1634 Campus Court Abilene, Texas 7960
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