37 research outputs found

    Nanopolysaccharides in Environmental Treatments

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    In recent years, sustainable nanopolysaccharides, such as cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and chitin nanocrystals (ChNC) have been explored for improving the efficiency of environment prevention and purification. The potential application is attributed to their biodegradability, sustainability, renewability, biocompatibility, high aspect ratio and high capacity retention. Besides the outstanding advantages, the tailorability of the surface chemistry may enhance the binding efficiency. This review provides a detailed overview of pristine, surface-functionalized nanopolysaccharides and nanocomposites for applications in removal heavy metal ions, organic molecules, dyes and toxic gas in various wastewater treatment and gas adsorptions processes, such as adsorption, flocculation, and membrane filtration. It appears that abundant nanopolysaccharide materials have attracted increasing attention in promising environmental applications

    An epidemiological study of dengue and its coinfections in Delhi

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    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of dengue with reference to serological, demographic profile, spatio-temporal distribution, vectors, circulating serotypes and coinfections. Methods: Demographic data and presenting symptoms of fever cases reporting to the clinic were recorded. Suspected patients were tested for dengue, chikungunya and malaria. Dengue specific RT-PCR was performed to detect circulating DENV serotypes. Vector surveys were carried out to detect Aedes breeding. Results: Of the 5536 fever patients tested during 2012 to 2015, 1536 (27.7%) had confirmed dengue. The peak in dengue positivity was observed during September and October. Of the 60 samples analysed, 10 (16.7%) had concurrent infection with multiple dengue serotypes; one of them had all the four serotypes. Coinfection of dengue with malaria and chikungunya was also observed. The occurrence of dengue and malaria was inversely related. Seven percent of the dengue patients required hospitalization. Vector surveys in the draining area revealed Aedes breeding with a high house index. Conclusion: Delhi being hyperendemic, the occurrence of concurrent infections with multiple DENV serotypes has become a frequent finding. The study emphasizes the need of epidemiological and entomological surveillance to monitor trends in dengue distribution, seasonal patterns and circulating serotypes to guide dengue control activities. Keywords: Dengue, Epidemiology, India, Serotype

    Efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations for the treatment of malaria in pregnancy in India: a randomized controlled trial.

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    BACKGROUND: In India, the recommended first-line treatment for malaria in the second and third trimester of pregnancy is artesunate‚ÄČ+‚ÄČsulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP). However, data on safety and efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in pregnancy is limited. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of AS+SP and artesunate‚ÄČ+‚ÄČmefloquine (AS+MQ) for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy in India. METHODS: This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 2010 to December 2013 at three sites in India (Ranchi and Jamshedpur in Jharkhand state, and Rourkela in Odisha state). Pregnant women in the second or third trimester who had P. falciparum mono-infection of any parasite density with or without fever were randomized to receive AS+SP or AS+MQ. Blood slides and filter paper samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 63 post treatment. Women were followed up at delivery and at day 42 postpartum. FINDINGS: Two hundred and forty-eight women of 7064 pregnant women (3.5%) who were screened at monthly antenatal clinics had a P. falciparum mono-infection and were randomized to receive AS+SP (125) or AS+MQ (123) and all of these women were included in the intention to treat (ITT) analysis. The primary endpoint of an adequate clinical and parasite response (ACPR) on day 63 was not available for 9 women who were counted as treatment failure in the ITT analysis. In the ITT population, the ACPR was 121/125 (96.8%; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 92.0-99.1%) in the AS+SP group and 117/123 (95.1%; 95% CI 89.7-98.2) in the AS+MQ group. Among the 239 women (121 from the AS+SP arm and 118 from the AS+MQ arm) who completed the day 63 follow up (per protocol analysis) the ACPR was 100% in the AS+SP group and 99.2% (117/118) in the AS+MQ group. There were five serious adverse events (SAE) among pregnant women (4 in the AS+SP group and 1 in the AS+MQ group) and 13 fetal/neonatal SAEs (7 in the AS+SP group and 6 in the AS+MQ) but none of them were related to the study drugs. A higher proportion of women in the AS+MQ arm reported vomiting within 7¬†days post-treatment than did women in the AS+SP arm (6.9 vs. 1.6%; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001). CONCLUSION: Both AS+SP and AS+MQ are safe and effective for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in pregnancy in India. Trial registration CTRI This study is registered with Clinical Trial Registry India (CTRI), number CTRI/2009/091/001055. Date of Registration 11 January 2010, http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/pmaindet2.php?trialid=1185&EncHid=&userName=anvikar

    Monitoring the efficacy of antimalarial medicines in India via sentinel sites: Outcomes and risk factors for treatment failure

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    Background & objectives: To combat the problem of antimalarial drug resistance, monitoring the changes in drug efficacy over time through periodic surveillance is essential. Since 2009, systematic and continuous monitoring is being done through nationwide sentinel site system. Potential early warning signs like partner drug resistance markers were also monitored in the clinical samples from the study areas. Methods: A total of 1864 patients with acute uncomplicated malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies of artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum; those infected with P. vivax were given chloroquine (CQ). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to distinguish post-treatment reinfection from treatment failures. Isolates of P. falciparum were also analysed for dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene mutations. Results: Overall, 1687 (91.7%) patients completed the follow-up. In most of the falciparum patients the parasitaemia was cleared within 24 h of treatment, except 12 patients who remained parasite positive after 72 h. Presence of dhfr and dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. A daily dose of artesunate of 95% cases in all the sentinel sites except in Northeastern region (NE). Chloroquine remained 100% efficacious in case of P. vivax infections. Interpretation & conclusion: Till 2012, India′s national antimalarial drug resistance monitoring system proved highly efficacious and safe towards first-line antimalarials used in the country, except in Northeastern region where a decline in efficacy of AS+SP has been observed. This led to change in first-line treatment for P. falciparum to artemether-lumefantrine in Northeastern region

    Lattice Vibrations and Spectroscopy of Mantle Phases

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    Nonrandomized Controlled Trial of Artesunate plus Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine with or without Primaquine for Preventing Posttreatment Circulation of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes

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    ABSTRACT Artemisinin combination therapies eliminate immature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but not mature gametocytes, which may persist for up to 1 month posttreatment. A single dose of primaquine, which is inexpensive and effective against mature gametocytes, could be added to further reduce the potential for posttreatment parasite transmission. Currently, we have few data regarding the effectiveness or safety of doing so. We collected data from 21 therapeutic efficacy trials of the National Antimalarial Drug Resistance Monitoring System of India conducted during 2009 to 2010, wherein 9 sites used single-dose primaquine (0.75 mg/kg of body weight) administered on day 2 along with artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) while 12 did not. We estimated the effect of primaquine on posttreatment gametocyte clearance and the total number of gametocyte-weeks as determined by microscopy. We compared the median area under the curve for gametocyte density and reported adverse events. One thousand three hundred thirty-five patients completed the antimalarial drug treatment. Adjusting for region, primaquine increased the rate of gametocyte clearance (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.3), prevented 45% (95% CI, 19 to 62) of posttreatment gametocyte-weeks, and decreased the area under the gametocyte density curve over the 28-day follow-up compared to AS+SP alone ( P value = 0.01). The results were robust to other adjustment sets, and the estimated effect of primaquine increased during sensitivity analysis on the measurement of exposure time. No serious adverse events were detected. In conclusion, the addition of primaquine to AS+SP was effective in reducing the posttreatment presence of P. falciparum gametocytes. Primaquine was well tolerated and could be administered along with an artemisinin combination therapy as the first-line therapy

    Genetic variation in histidine rich proteins among Indian Plasmodium falciparum population: possible cause of variable sensitivity of malaria rapid diagnostic tests

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    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have revolutionized the diagnosis of malaria. Among the various factors affecting RDTs sensitivity is genetic variation of the antigen used. The genetic variation in PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 proteins was studied among the Indian Plasmodium falciparum isolates. METHODS: One hundred and forty isolates of P. falciparum were collected from six geographical regions of India. Target genes encoding PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 antigens were sequenced to study genetic polymorphism. Minimum detection limit giving a positive rapid diagnostic test was also determined. RESULTS: Extensive variations were observed in amino acid repeat types of PfHRP2 and PfHRP3. PfHRP2 exhibited more polymorphism than PfHRP3. Significant relation was observed between type 2 and type 7 repeats and RDT detection rate as higher number of these repeats showed better sensitivity with RDTs. CONCLUSION: The results provide insights into the genetic diversity of Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes among Indian P. falciparum population and its relation to RDT sensitivity
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