37 research outputs found

    Flash Glucose Monitoring in Croatia: The Optimal Number of Scans per Day to Achieve Good Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes

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    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal number of scans per day required for attaining good glycemic regulation. Materials and Methods: The association of scanning frequency and glucometrics was analyzed according to bins of scanning frequency and bins of time in range (TIR) in the Croatian population of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients. Results: Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) Libre users in Croatia performed on average 13 ± 7.4 scans per day. According to bins of scanning frequency, bin 5 with 11.2 ± 02 daily scans was sufficient for achieving meaningful improvements in glycemic regulation, while decreasing severe hypoglycemia required an increasing number of scans up to bin 10 (31 ± 0.9), yet with no effect on TIR improvement. When data were analyzed according to bins of TIR, an average of 16.3 ± 10.5 scans daily was associated with a TIR of 94.09 ± 3.49% and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22.97 ± 4.94%. Improvement was shown between each successive bin of TIR but, of notice, the number of scans performed per day was 16.3 ± 10.5 according to TIR-based analysis and 31.9 ± 13.5 in bin 10 according to scan frequency analysis. Conclusions: In conclusion, an optimal average number of scans per day is 16.3 in order to achieve glucose stability and to minimize the burden associated with over-scanning

    Representation of CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and UGT1A4 Polymorphisms within Croatian Breast Cancer Patients’ Population

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    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) could have a critical role in individual responses to anastrozole. Frequency of CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3 and UGT1A4*2 SNPs in 126 Croatian breast cancer (BC) patients and possible association with anastrozole-induced undesirable side effects were analyzed. Eighty-two postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC treated with anastrozole and 44 postmenopausal ER-positive BC patients before hormonal adjuvant therapy were included in the study. Genomic DNA was genotyped by TaqMan Real-Time PCR. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The homozygotes for the variant G allele of CYP3A5*3 were predominant (88%), and the homozygotes for the reference A allele were not detected. While homozygotes for the variant G allele of CYP3A4*1B were not detected, predominantly wild type homozygotes for A allele (94%) were present. CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 SNPs were in 84.3% linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.843) and 95.1% (D’ = 0.951) in group treated with anastrozole and w/o treatment, respectively. Homozygotes for the A allele of UGT1A4*2 were not detected in our study groups. Although the variant CYP3A5*3 allele, which might result in poor metabolizer phenotype and more pronounced side effects, was predominant, significant association with BMD changes induced by anastrozole were not confirmed

    Impact of Breast Density Awareness on Knowledge about Breast Cancer Risk Factors and the Self-Perceived Risk of Breast Cancer

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    Breast density (BD) reduces sensitivity of mammography, and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer (BC). Data about women’s awareness and knowledge of BD are limited. Our aim is to examine whether the BD information disclosure and BD awareness among women without BC are related to their knowledge about BC risk factors. We examined self-reported BC risk perception and its association to BD awareness and level of health literacy. A cross-sectional, single site study included 263 Croatian women without BC who had mammographic examination. Data were collected by interviews using questionnaires and a validated survey. Of the total, 77.1% had never heard of BD, and 22.9% were aware of their BD. Most participants who knew their BD (88.2%, p < 0.001) had higher levels of education. Majority of subjects (66.8%) had non-dense breasts and 33.2% had dense breasts. Subjects aware of their BD knew that post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (p = 0.04) and higher BD (p = 0.03) are BC risk factors. They could more easily access information about health promotion (p = 0.03). High-BD informed women assessed their lifetime BC risk as significantly higher than all others (p = 0.03). Comprehension of BD awareness and knowledge is crucial for reinforcement of educational strategies and development of amendatory BC screening decisions

    Hypothyroidism and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pathophysiological Associations and Therapeutic Implications

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    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex clinical entity which can be secondary to many other diseases including hypothyroidism, characterized by lowering of thyroid hormones and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). A lot of emerging data published recently advocates the hypothesis that hypothyroid induced NAFLD could be a separate clinical entity, even suggesting possible treatment options for NAFLD involving substitution therapy for hypothyroidism along with lifestyle modifications. In addition, a whole new field of research is focused on thyromimetics in NAFLD/NASH treatment, currently in phase 3 clinical trials. In this critical review we summarized epidemiological and pathophysiological evidence linking these two clinical entities and described specific treatment options with the accent on promising new agents in NAFLD treatment, specifically thyroid hormone receptor (THR) agonist and its metabolites

    Psoriasis Severity—A Risk Factor of Insulin Resistance Independent of Metabolic Syndrome

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    Background: It is still debatable whether psoriasis increases cardiovascular risk indirectly since it is associated with metabolic syndrome or is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate psoriasis severity as an independent predictor of insulin resistance (IR) irrespective of the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: This was a case control study including 128 patients stratified into two groups: patients with psoriasis and metabolic syndrome vs. patients with psoriasis and no metabolic syndrome. MetS was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as well as a homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated. Results: Compared to subjects without metabolic syndrome, patients with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) values (p < 0.001). The strongest correlation was established for HOMA-IR and the PASI index (p < 0.001), even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) in regression analysis model. In patients without MetS and severe forms of disease, the HOMA-IR and HOMA-β values were significantly higher compared to mild forms of disease (p < 0.001 for all) while in subjects with MetS no difference was established for HOMA-IR or HOMA-β based on disease severity. Conclusions: Psoriasis severity is an independent risk factor of HOMA-IR, the strongest association being present in the non-MetS group, who still had preserved beta cell function suggesting direct promotion of atherosclerosis via insulin resistance depending on the disease severity, but irrespective of the presence of metabolic syndrome

    Are We Compensating for the Lack of Physical Activity in Our Diabetic Patients with Treatment Intensification?

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    Background: We studied the association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), and hypoglycemic incidents in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 198 diabetic patients (60 with type 1 diabetes, 138 with type 2 diabetes). LTPA was assessed by a validated 12-month questionnaire. Patients were grouped as sedentary and moderately to vigorously active. Outcome measures were Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), BMI, and hypoglycemic episodes. Results: LTPA effect on the HbA1c reduction was present in diabetes type 1 patients. Patients who were involved in the moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity had a greater decrease in the HbA1c (p = 0.048) than patients with low physical activity (p = 0.085). Level of LTPA was neither associated with increased number of hypoglycemic episodes, nor BMI. After an average of 4 years of diabetes, the number of patients requiring more than one antidiabetic agent increased, although the observed difference did not correlate with LTPA level. Conclusions: LTPA has an influence on the regulation of diabetes type 1, and intensification of medical treatment is compensating for the lack of lifestyle change—especially in type 2 diabetics

    Long-Term Effectiveness of Liraglutide in Association with Patients’ Baseline Characteristics in Real-Life Setting in Croatia: An Observational, Retrospective, Multicenter Study

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    Brugada Syndrome and Right Ventricle Morphofunctional Abnormalities on Echocardiography in Young Male with Family Anamnesis of Sudden Cardiac Death

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    First presented by Brugada and Brugada in 1992, Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is a primary electrical disease of the heart that causes sudden cardiac death or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This disease is hereditary autosomic dominant transmitted and genetically determined. The syndrome has been linked to mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding for the α-subunit of the sodium channel. Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities indicating Brugada syndrome, include repolarization and depolarization abnormalities in the absence of identifiable structural cardiac abnormalities or other conditions or agents known to lead to ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads (V1-V3). Intravenous administration of sodium channel blocking drugs may modify the ECG pattern. Ajmaline, flecainide, procainamide and propafenone exaggerate the ST-segment elevation or unmask it when it is initially absent. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the only proven effective device treatment for the disease. Although BrS is primary electrical disease, some authors have suggested the presence of morphological and functional abnormalities mainly located in the right ventricle (RV), notably in the outflow tract (RVOT). In this short report we will present a young male, with predisposition and positive family history of sudden cardiac death, with complete diagnostic procedure including propafenon testing unmasking Brugada syndrome. An echosonography revealed dilated apical right ventricle, suggesting BrS is not only electrical disorder, but may include morphofunctional abnormalities, described in previous reports. In addition, we reviewed the possible connection between Brugada syndrome and morphological abnormalities in RV