39 research outputs found


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    BackgroundMannose binding lectin, a plasma protein protects host from virus, bacteria and parasites. Deficiency in MBL levels has been associated with susceptibility to various infectious diseases including P. falciparum malaria. Common MBL polymorphisms in promoter and coding regions are associated with decrease in plasma MBL levels or production of deformed MBL, respectively. In the present study, we hypothesized that MBL2 variants and plasma MBL levels could be associated with different clinical phenotypes of severe P. falciparum malaria.MethodsA hospital based study was conducted in eastern Odisha, India which is endemic to P. falciparum malaria. Common MBL-2 polymorphisms (codon 54, H-550L and Y-221X) were typed in 336 cases of severe malaria (SM) [94 cerebral malaria (CM), 120 multi-organ dysfunction (MOD), 122 non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM)] and 131 un-complicated malaria patients (UM). Plasma MBL levels were quantified by ELISA.ResultsSevere malaria patients displayed lower plasma levels of MBL compared to uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Furthermore,on categorization of severe malaria patients into various subtypes, plasma MBL levels were very low in MOD patients compared to other categories. Higher frequency of AB genotype and allele B was observed in MOD compared to UM (AB genotype: P=0.006; B allele: P=0.008). In addition, prevalence of YX genotype of MBL Y-221X polymorphism was also statistically more frequent in MOD case than UM (P=0.009).ConclusionsThe observations of the present study reveal that MBL-2polymorphisms (codon 54 and Y-221X) and lower plasma MBL levels are associated with increased susceptibility to multi organ dysfunctions in P. falciparum malaria

    Nickel concentration dependent structural and optical properties of electrodeposited diamond like carbon thin films

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    Diamond like carbon (DLC) and composite nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon (Ni-DLC) films have been synthesized on ITO coated glass substrates using low voltage electrodeposition method. Modifications of structural and optical properties of thin films have been investigated with varying Ni concentration. Average grain size of Ni-DLC granules is found to decrease with increasing molarity of Ni in electrolytic solution. XRD pattern depicts multi-phase nature of Ni-DLC film. Incorporation of Ni nanoparticles in DLC matrix has been confirmed by TEM. Interestingly optical bandgap energy decreases from 2.31 to 1.58 eV with decrease in nickel content in the electrolytic bath. Simultaneously Urbach energy exhibits an increasing trend from 1.972 to 2.374 eV. Presence of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbons has been indicated by FTIR spectra. The number of sp2 bonding in carbon matrix is enhanced with dilution of electrolyte. The peaks in the range of ~600–750 cm−1 in Ni-DLC films have been attributed to metal incorporation into DLC matrix. Study reveals that the bandgap and the particle size of carbon nanocomposite films can be tailored by controlling the amount of nickel in the electrolyte

    Benzimidazolium-based high temperature ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion for regioselective nitration reaction

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    Owing to the fascinating applications of ionic liquids (ILs) based non-aqueous microemulsions (MEs) in the field of chemical reactions due to their high thermal stability compared to that of aqueous MEs and requirement of water-free environment, we designed a high-temperature stable cationic IL-in-oil microemulsions using 1-ethyl-3-propylbenzimidazolium bromide (EPbim]Br) as a polar phase for the first time. In order to determine the thermodynamic stability of such type of MEs, we measured the distribution of cosurfactant (herein, 1-octanol) between bulk n-decane phase and interface covered by quaternary ammonium head group of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at elevated temperature. The spontaneous formulation of high-temperature IL-in-oil MEs with organized IL-oil interface was identified by the negative free energy and entropy change at studied temperature range (358-370 K). Interestingly, we observed temperature-independent exothermic behavior at a specific composition, which probably comes from the cation-pi interaction between quaternary ammonium head group of CTAB and aromatic moiety of ILs. We performed phase behavior study to demonstrate a wide range of thermally stable of EPbim](Br]/CTAB/decane MEs. Surprisingly, the droplet size was decreased with progressive addition of IL, which may be due to the difficulty of formation of strong and favourable H-bond between the polar head groups of CTAB and EPbim]Br] at higher temperature. Furthermore, the aggregation number and molecular interfacial area at higher temperature were calculated, which have direct correlation with the droplet size. Finally, the nitration reaction with three different aromatic compounds was performed in this MEs media at the temperature-independent composition. The reaction was completed with the highest regioseletivity-of para isomer product over the ortho one. Moreover, these results clearly highlight an efficient way towards the formulation of high temperature stable MEs with ILs at ambient pressure and open a wide field of potential applications. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Transcriptomic meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of gene expression functional in osteoclast differentiation in human septic shock

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    <div><p>Septic shock is a major medical problem with high morbidity and mortality and incompletely understood biology. Integration of multiple data sets into a single analysis framework empowers discovery of new knowledge about the condition that may have been missed by individual analysis of each of these datasets. Electronic search was performed on medical literature and gene expression databases for selection of transcriptomic studies done in circulating leukocytes from human subjects suffering from septic shock. Gene-level meta-analysis was conducted on the six selected studies to identify the genes consistently differentially expressed in septic shock. This was followed by pathway-level analysis using three different algorithms (ORA, GSEA, SPIA). The identified up-regulated pathway, Osteoclast differentiation pathway (hsa04380) was validated in two independent cohorts. Of the pathway, 25 key genes were selected that serve as an expression signature of Septic Shock.</p></div