199 research outputs found

    Prognostication in Acutely Admitted Older Patients by Nurses and Physicians

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    BACKGROUND: The process of prognostication has not been described for acutely hospitalized older patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) which factors are associated with 90-day mortality risk in a group of acutely hospitalized older medical patients, and (2) whether adding a clinical impression score of nurses or physicians improves the discriminatory ability of mortality prediction. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and sixty-three medical patients 65 years or older acutely admitted from November 1, 2002, through July 1, 2005, to a 1024-bed tertiary university teaching hospital. MEASUREMENTS: At admission, the attending nurse and physician were asked to give a clinical impression score for the illness the patient was admitted for. This score ranged from 1 (high possibility of a good outcome) until 10 (high possibility of a bad outcome, including mortality). Of all patients baseline characteristics and clinical parameters were collected. Mortality was registered up to 90 days after admission. MAIN RESULTS: In total, 23.8% (n=110) of patients died within 90 days of admission. Four parameters were significantly associated with mortality risk: functional impairment, diagnosis malignancy, co-morbidities and high urea nitrogen serum levels. The AUC for the baseline model which included these risk factors (model 1) was 0.76 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.82). The AUC for the model using the risk factors and the clinical impression score of the physician (model 2) was 0.77 (0.71 to 0.82). The AUC for the model using the risk factors and the clinical impression score of the nurse (model 3) was 0.76 (0.71 to 0.82) and the AUC for the model, including the baseline covariates and the clinical impression score of both nurses and physicians was 0.77 (0.72 to 0.82). Adding clinical impression scores to model 1 did not significantly improve its accuracy. CONCLUSION: A set of four clinical variables predicted mortality risk in acutely hospitalized older patients quite well. Adding clinical impression scores of nurses, physicians or both did not improve the discriminating ability of the mode

    An exploratory study of healthcare professionals' perceptions of interprofessional communication and collaboration

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    Interprofessional communication and collaboration during hospitalisation is critically important to provide safe and effective care. Clinical rounds are an essential interprofessional process in which the clinical problems of patients are discussed on a daily basis. The objective of this exploratory study was to identify healthcare professionals' perspectives on the ideal interprofessional round for patients in a university teaching hospital. Three focus groups with medical residents, registered nurses, medical specialists, and quality improvement officers were held. We used a descriptive method of content analysis. The findings indicate that it is important for professionals to consider how team members and patients are involved in the decision-making process during the clinical round and how current social and spatial structures can affect communication and collaboration between the healthcare team and the patient. Specific aspects of communication and collaboration are identified for improving effective interprofessional communication and collaboration during rounds

    The course of readmission in frail older cardiac patients

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    Aim: The aim of this study is to explore patients' and (in)formal caregivers' perspectives on their role(s) and contributing factors in the course of unplanned hospital readmission of older cardiac patients in the Cardiac Care Bridge (CCB) program. Design: This study is a qualitative multiple case study alongside the CCB randomized trial, based on grounded theory principles. Methods: Five cases within the intervention group, with an unplanned hospital readmission within six months after randomization, were selected. In each case, semi-structured interviews were held with patients (n = 4), informal caregivers (n = 5), physical therapists (n = 4), and community nurses (n = 5) between April and June 2019. Patients' medical records were collected to reconstruct care processes before the readmission. Thematic analysis and the six-step analysis of Strauss & Corbin have been used. Results: Three main themes emerged. Patients experienced acute episodes of physical deterioration before unplanned hospital readmission. The involvement of (in)formal caregivers in adequate observation of patients' health status is vital to prevent rehospitalization (theme 1). Patients and (in)formal caregivers' perception of care needs did not always match, which resulted in hampering care support (theme 2). CCB caregivers experienced difficulties in providing care in some cases, resulting in limited care provision in addition to the existing care services (theme 3). Conclusion: Early detection of deteriorating health status that leads to readmission was often lacking, due to the acuteness of the deterioration. Empowerment of patients and their informal caregivers in the recognition of early signs of deterioration and adequate collaboration between caregivers could support early detection. Patients' care needs and expectations should be prioritized to stimulate participation. Impact: (In)formal caregivers may be able to prevent unplanned hospital readmission of older cardiac patients by ensuring: (1) early detection of health deterioration, (2) empowerment of patient and informal caregivers, and (3) clear understanding of patients' care needs and expectations

    Experiences of frail older cardiac patients with a nurse-coordinated transitional care intervention - a qualitative study

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    Background: Older cardiac patients are at high risk of readmission and mortality. Transitional care interventions (TCIs) might contribute to the prevention of adverse outcomes. The Cardiac Care Bridge program was a randomized nurse-coordinated TCI combining case management, disease management and home-based rehabilitation for hospitalized frail older cardiac patients. This qualitative study explored the experiences of patients' participating in this study, as part of a larger process evaluation as this might support interpretation of the neutral study outcomes. In addition, understanding these experiences could contribute to the design and application of future transitional care interventions for frail older cardiac patients. Methods: A generic qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 16 patients ≥70 years who participated in the intervention group. Participants were selected by gender, diagnosis, living arrangement and hospital of inclusion. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. In addition, quantitative data about intervention delivery were analysed. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: 1) appreciation of care continuity; 2) varying experiences with recovery and, 3) the influence of an existing care network. Participants felt supported by the transitional care intervention as they experienced post-discharge support and continuity of care. The perceived contribution of the program in participants' recovery varied. Some participants reported physical improvements while others felt impeded by comorbidities or frailty. The home visits by the community nurse were appreciated, although some participants did not recognize the added value. Participants with an existing healthcare provider network preferred to consult these providers instead of the providers who were involved in the transitional care intervention. Conclusion: Our results contribute to an explanation of the neutral study of a nurse-coordinated transitional care intervention. For future purpose, it is important to identify which patients might benefit most from TCIs. Furthermore, the intensity and content of TCIs could be more personalized by tailoring interventions to older cardiac patients' needs, considering their frailty, self-management skills and existing formal and informal caregiver networks. Keywords: Cardiac rehabilitation; Cardiology; Case management; Disease management; Frailty; Nurses; Physical therapists; Qualitative research; Transitional care

    The Cardiac Care Bridge randomized trial in high‐risk older cardiac patients: A mixed‐methods process evaluation

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    Aim: To evaluate healthcare professionals' performance and treatment fidelity in the Cardiac Care Bridge (CCB) nurse-coordinated transitional care intervention in older cardiac patients to understand and interpret the study results. Design: A mixed-methods process evaluation based on the Medical Research Council Process Evaluation framework. Methods: Quantitative data on intervention key elements were collected from 153 logbooks of all intervention patients. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 19 CCB professionals (cardiac nurses, community nurses and primary care physical therapists), from June 2017 until October 2018. Qualitative data-analysis is based on thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative key element outcomes. The analysis was blinded to trial outcomes. Fidelity was defined as the level of intervention adherence. Results: The overall intervention fidelity was 67%, ranging from severely low fidelity in the consultation of in-hospital geriatric teams (17%) to maximum fidelity in the comprehensive geriatric assessment (100%). Main themes of influence in the intervention performance that emerged from the interviews are interdisciplinary collaboration, organizational preconditions, confidence in the programme, time management and patient characteristics. In addition to practical issues, the patient's frailty status and limited motivation were barriers to the intervention. Conclusion: Although involved healthcare professionals expressed their confidence in the intervention, the fidelity rate was suboptimal. This could have influenced the non-significant effect of the CCB intervention on the primary composite outcome of readmission and mortality 6 months after randomization. Feasibility of intervention key elements should be reconsidered in relation to experienced barriers and the population. Impact: In addition to insight in effectiveness, insight in intervention fidelity and performance is necessary to understand the mechanism of impact. This study demonstrates that the suboptimal fidelity was subject to a complex interplay of organizational, professionals' and patients' issues. The results support intervention redesign and inform future development of transitional care interventions in older cardiac patients

    Establishing a composite endpoint for measuring the effectiveness of geriatric interventions based on older persons' and informal caregivers' preference weights:a vignette study

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    Background: The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimal Dataset's (TOPICS-MDS) questionnaire which measures relevant outcomes for elderly people was successfully incorporated into over 60 research projects of the Dutch National Care for the Elderly Programme. A composite endpoint (CEP) for this instrument would be helpful to compare effectiveness of the various intervention projects. Therefore, our aim is to establish a CEP for the TOPICS-MDS questionnaire, based on the preferences of elderly persons and informal caregivers. Methods: A vignette study was conducted with 200 persons (124 elderly and 76 informal caregivers) as raters. The vignettes described eight TOPICS-MDS outcomes of older persons (morbidity, functional limitations, emotional wellbeing, pain experience, cognitive functioning, social functioning, self-perceived health and self-perceived quality of life) and the raters assessed the general well-being (GWB) of these vignette cases on a numeric rating scale (0-10). Mixed linear regression analyses were used to derive the preference weights of the TOPICS-MDS outcomes (dependent variable: GWB scores; fixed factors: the eight outcomes; unstandardized coefficients: preference weights). Results: The mixed regression model that combined the eight outcomes showed that the weights varied from 0.01 for social functioning to 0.16 for self-perceived health. A model that included "informal caregiver" showed that the interactions between this variable and each of the eight outcomes were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: A preference-weighted CEP for TOPICS-MDS questionnaire was established based on the preferences of older persons and informal caregivers. With this CEP optimal comparing the effectiveness of interventions in older persons can be realized

    The performance of the Dutch Safety Management System frailty tool to predict the risk of readmission or mortality in older hospitalised cardiac patients

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    Background: Early identification of older cardiac patients at high risk of readmission or mortality facilitates targeted deployment of preventive interventions. In the Netherlands, the frailty tool of the Dutch Safety Management System (DSMS-tool) consists of (the risk of) delirium, falling, functional impairment, and malnutrition and is currently used in all older hospitalised patients. However, its predictive performance in older cardiac patients is unknown. Aim: To estimate the performance of the DSMS-tool alone and combined with other predictors in predicting hospital readmission or mortality within 6 months in acutely hospitalised older cardiac patients. Methods: An individual patient data meta-analysis was performed on 529 acutely hospitalised cardiac patients ≥70 years from four prospective cohorts. Missing values for predictor and outcome variables were multiply imputed. We explored discrimination and calibration of: (1) the DSMS-tool alone; (2) the four components of the DSMS-tool and adding easily obtainable clinical predictors; (3) the four components of the DSMS-tool and more difficult to obtain predictors. Predictors in model 2 and 3 were selected using backward selection using a threshold of p = 0.157. We used shrunk c-statistics, calibration plots, regression slopes and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-values (PHL) to describe predictive performance in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results: The population mean age was 82 years, 52% were males and 51% were admitted for heart failure. DSMS-tool was positive in 45% for delirium, 41% for falling, 37% for functional impairments and 29% for malnutrition. The incidence of hospital readmission or mortality gradually increased from 37 to 60% with increasing DSMS scores. Overall, the DSMS-tool discriminated limited (c-statistic 0.61, 95% 0.56-0.66). The final model included the DSMS-tool, diagnosis at admission and Charlson Comorbidity Index and had a c-statistic of 0.69 (95% 0.63-0.73; PHL was 0.658). Discussion: The DSMS-tool alone has limited capacity to accurately estimate the risk of readmission or mortality in hospitalised older cardiac patients. Adding disease-specific risk factor information to the DSMS-tool resulted in a moderately performing model. To optimise the early identification of older hospitalised cardiac patients at high risk, the combination of geriatric and disease-specific predictors should be further explored. Keywords: Aged; Cardiovascular diseases; Frailty; Mortality; Patient readmission; Predictive value of tests; Risk assessment

    The Cardiac Care Bridge transitional care program for the management of older high-risk cardiac patients: An economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

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    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Cardiac Care Bridge (CCB) nurse-led transitional care program in older (≥70 years) cardiac patients compared to usual care. Methods The intervention group (n = 153) received the CCB program consisting of case management, disease management and home-based cardiac rehabilitation in the transition from hospital to home on top of usual care and was compared with the usual care group (n = 153). Outcomes included a composite measure of first all-cause unplanned hospital readmission or mortality, Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and societal costs within six months follow-up. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Statistical uncertainty surrounding Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) was estimated by using bootstrapped seemingly unrelated regression. Results No significant between group differences in the composite outcome of readmission or mortality nor in societal costs were observed. QALYs were statistically significantly lower in the intervention group, mean difference -0.03 (95% CI: -0.07; -0.02). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the maximum probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.31 at a Willingness To Pay (WTP) of €0,00 and 0.14 at a WTP of €50,000 per composite outcome prevented and 0.32 and 0.21, respectively per QALY gained. Conclusion The CCB program was on average more expensive and less effective compared to usual care, indicating that the CCB program is dominated by usual care. Therefore, the CCB program cannot be considered cost-effective compared to usual care

    Effectiveness of sensor monitoring in an occupational therapy rehabilitation program for older individuals after hip fracture, the SO-HIP trial::study protocol of a three-arm stepped wedge cluster randomized trial

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    BACKGROUND: The performance of activities of daily living (ADL) at home is important for the recovery of older individuals after hip fracture. However, 20-90% of these individuals lose ADL function and never fully recover. It is currently unknown to what extent occupational therapy (OT) with coaching based on cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) improves recovery. The same holds for sensor monitoring-based coaching in addition to OT. Here, we describe the design of a study investigating the effect of sensor monitoring embedded in an OT rehabilitation program on the recovery of ADL among older individuals after hip fracture. METHODS/ DESIGN: Six nursing homes will be randomized in a three-arm stepped wedge cluster randomized trial. All nursing homes will initially provide standard care. At designated time points, nursing homes, successively and in random order, will cross over to the provision of OT and at the next time point, to sensor monitoring-enhanced OT. A total of 288 older individuals, previously living alone in the community, who after a hip fracture were admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward for a short-term rehabilitation, will be enrolled. Individuals in the first intervention group (OTc) will participate in an OT rehabilitation program with coaching based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles. In the sensor monitoring group, sensor monitoring is added to the OT intervention (OTcsm). Participants will receive a sensor monitoring system consisting of (i) an activity monitor during nursing home stay, (ii) a sensor monitoring system at home and a (iii) a web-based feedback application. These components will be embedded in the OT. The OT consists of a weekly session with an occupational therapist during the nursing home stay followed by four home visits and four telephone consultations. The primary outcome is patient-perceived daily functioning at 6 months, assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). DISCUSSION: As far as we know, this study is the first large-scale stepped wedge trial, studying the effect of sensor monitoring embedded in an OT coaching program. The study will provide new knowledge on the combined intervention of sensor monitoring and coaching in OT as a part of a rehabilitation program to enable older individuals to perform everyday activities and to remain living independently after hip fracture. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Netherlands National Trial Register, NTR 5716 Date registered: April 1 2016

    The nurse-coordinated cardiac care bridge transitional care programme: a randomised clinical trial

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    Background: after hospitalisation for cardiac disease, older patients are at high risk of readmission and death. Objective: the cardiac care bridge (CCB) transitional care programme evaluated the impact of combining case management, disease management and home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on hospital readmission and mortality. Design: single-blind, randomised clinical trial. Setting: the trial was conducted in six hospitals in the Netherlands between June 2017 and March 2020. Community-based nurses and physical therapists continued care post-discharge. Subjects: cardiac patients ≥ 70 years were eligible if they were at high risk of functional loss or if they had had an unplanned hospital admission in the previous 6 months. Methods: the intervention group received a comprehensive geriatric assessment-based integrated care plan, a face-to-face handover with the community nurse before discharge and follow-up home visits. The community nurse collaborated with a pharmacist and participants received home-based CR from a physical therapist. The primary composite outcome was first all-cause unplanned readmission or mortality at 6 months. Results: in total, 306 participants were included. Mean age was 82.4 (standard deviation 6.3), 58% had heart failure and 92% were acutely hospitalised. 67% of the intervention key-elements were delivered. The composite outcome incidence was 54.2% (83/153) in the intervention group and 47.7% (73/153) in the control group (risk differences 6.5% [95% confidence intervals, CI -4.7 to 18%], risk ratios 1.14 [95% CI 0.91-1.42], P = 0.253). The study was discontinued prematurely due to implementation activities in usual care. Conclusion: in high-risk older cardiac patients, the CCB programme did not reduce hospital readmission or mortality within 6 months. Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Register 6,316, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6169. Keywords: cardiac rehabilitation; cardiology; case management; disease management; transitional care
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