1,776 research outputs found

    The odyssey to next-generation computers: cognitive computers (κC) inspired by the brain and powered by intelligent mathematics

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    Cognitive computers (κC) are intelligent processors advanced from data and information processing to autonomous knowledge learning and intelligence generation. This work presents a retrospective and prospective review of the odyssey toward κC empowered by transdisciplinary basic research and engineering advances. A wide range of fundamental theories and innovative technologies for κC is explored, and a set of underpinning intelligent mathematics (IM) is created. The architectures of κC for cognitive computing and Autonomous Intelligence Generation (AIG) are designed as a brain-inspired cognitive engine. Applications of κC in autonomous AI (AAI) are demonstrated by pilot projects. This work reveals that AIG will no longer be a privilege restricted only to humans via the odyssey to κC toward training-free and self-inferencing computers

    A Multi-disciplinary Commentary on Preclinical Research to investigate Vascular Contributions to Dementia

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    Although dementia research has been dominated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), most dementia in older people is now recognised to be due to mixed pathologies, usually combining vascular and AD brain pathology. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which encompasses vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. Models of VCI have been delayed by limited understanding of the underlying aetiology and pathogenesis. This review by a multidisciplinary, diverse (in terms of sex, geography and career stage), cross-institute team provides a perspective on limitations to current VCI models and recommendations for improving translation and reproducibility. We discuss reproducibility, clinical features of VCI and corresponding assessments in models, human pathology, bioinformatics approaches, and data sharing. We offer recommendations for future research, particularly focusing on small vessel disease as a main underpinning disorder

    The reversal characteristics of GABAergic neurons: a neurovascular model

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    Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the ability to locally adjust vascular resistance as a function of neuronal activity. Recent experiments have illustrated that NVC is partially independent of metabolic signals. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown in some instances to provide an important mechanism in altering vascular resistance. An extension to the original model of NVC [1] has been developed to include the activation of both somatosensory neurons and GABAergic interneurons and to investigate the role of NO and the delicate balance of GABA and neuronal peptide enzymes (NPY) pathways. The numerical model is compared to murine experimental data that provides time-dependent profiles of oxy, de-oxy, and total-hemoglobin. The results indicate a delicate balance that exists between GABA and NPY when nNOS interneurons are activated mediated by NO. Whereas somatosensory neurons (producing potassium into the extracellular space) do not seem to be effected by the inhibition of NO. Further work will need to be done to investigate the role of NO when stimulation periods are increased substantially from the short pulses of 2 s as used in the above experiments

    When ‘cultures of care’ meet: entanglements and accountabilities at the intersection of animal research and patient involvement in the UK

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    A good culture of care, empowering individuals within organisations to care and reflecting wider social expectations about care, is now a well-documented aspiration in managing practices of laboratory animal research and establishing priorities for patient and public health. However, there is little attention to how different institutional cultures of care interact and what happens to the accountabilities of caring roles and the entanglements of caring practices when institutional cultures meet. Drawing on research exploring the increasing practices of patient and public involvement (PPI) within animal research in the UK, we identify three ways in which cultures of care are changing in encounters between biomedical researchers and people affected by health conditions. Firstly, patient involvement in animal research brings additional bodies to care for within research facilities. Secondly, patient and public groups are seen as an increasingly important group to convey a culture of care to. Thirdly, involvement brings opportunities for patients and publics to connect care for both human and animals. However, more attention is required to understand how shifts towards cultures of care distribute power and responsibility to care within institutions and at their boundaries, where responsibilities to care may be disconnected from the power to effect meaningful changes

    InterMEL: An international biorepository and clinical database to uncover predictors of survival in early-stage melanoma

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    We are conducting a multicenter study to identify classifiers predictive of disease-specific survival in patients with primary melanomas. Here we delineate the unique aspects, challenges, and best practices for optimizing a study of generally small-sized pigmented tumor samples including primary melanomas of at least 1.05mm from AJTCC TNM stage IIA-IIID patients. We also evaluated tissue-derived predictors of extracted nucleic acids’ quality and success in downstream testing. This ongoing study will target 1,000 melanomas within the international InterMEL consortium.Medicin

    A multi-disciplinary commentary on preclinical research to investigate vascular contributions to dementia

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    Although dementia research has been dominated by Alzheimer's disease (AD), most dementia in older people is now recognised to be due to mixed pathologies, usually combining vascular and AD brain pathology. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which encompasses vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. Models of VCI have been delayed by limited understanding of the underlying aetiology and pathogenesis. This review by a multidisciplinary, diverse (in terms of sex, geography and career stage), cross-institute team provides a perspective on limitations to current VCI models and recommendations for improving translation and reproducibility. We discuss reproducibility, clinical features of VCI and corresponding assessments in models, human pathology, bioinformatics approaches, and data sharing. We offer recommendations for future research, particularly focusing on small vessel disease as a main underpinning disorder
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