560 research outputs found

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary rotary ablation with rotablator (European experience)

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    This study reports the results from 3 European centers using rotary ablation with Rotablator, a device that is inserted into the coronary artery and removes atheroma by grinding it into millions of tiny fragments. Rotary ablation was performed in 129 patients. Primary success (reduction in percent luminal narrowing greater than 20%, residual stenosis less than 50%, without complications) was achieved by rotary angioplasty alone in 73 patients (57%). An additional 38 patients (29%) had successful adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Thus primary success was achieved in 111 patients (86%) at the end of the procedure. Acute occlusion occurred in 10 patients (7.7%). Recanalization was achieved by balloon angioplasty in 7: urgent bypass grafting was undertaken in 2. Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 3 and 7 patients, respectively. No deaths occurred. Follow-up angiography was performed in 74 patients (60%). Restenosis, defined as the recurrence of significant luminal narrowing (greater than 50%) occurred in 17 of 37 patients (46%) who underwent rotary ablation alone, and 11 of 37 patients (30%) who had adjunctive balloon angioplasty. The overall angiographic restenosis rate was 37.8%. In conclusion, rotary ablation is technically feasible, and relatively safe i

    Management and outcome of patients with established coronary artery disease: the Euro Heart Survey on coronary revascularization

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    Aims The purpose of the Euro Heart Survey Programme of the European Society of Cardiology is to evaluate to which extent clinical practice endorses existing guidelines as well as to identify differences in population profiles, patient management, and outcome across Europe. The current survey focuses on the invasive diagnosis and treatment of patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results Between November 2001 and March 2002, 7769 consecutive patients undergoing invasive evaluation at 130 hospitals (31 countries) were screened for the presence of one or more coronary stenosis >50% in diameter. Patient demographics and comorbidity, clinical presentation, invasive parameters, treatment options, and procedural techniques were prospectively entered in an electronic database (550 variables+29 per diseased coronary segment). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated at 30 days and 1 year. Out of 5619 patients with angiographically proven coronary stenosis (72% of screened population), 53% presented with stable angina while ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was the indication for coronary angiography in 16% and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina in 30%. Only medical therapy was continued in 21%, whereas mechanical revascularization was performed in the remainder [percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 58% and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 21%]. Patients referred for PCI were younger, were more active, had a lower risk profile, and had less comorbid conditions. CABG was performed mostly in patients with left main lesions (21%), two- (25%), or three-vessel disease (67%) with 4.1 diseased segments, on average. Single-vessel PCI was performed in 82% of patients with either single- (45%), two- (33%), or three-vessel disease (21%). Stents were used in 75% of attempted lesions, with a large variation between sites. Direct PCI for STEMI was performed in 410 cases, representing 7% of the entire workload in the participating catheterization laboratories. Time delay was within 90 min in 76% of direct PCI cases. In keeping with the recommendations of practice guidelines, the survey identified under-use of adjunctive medication (GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors). Mortality rates at 30 days and 1 year were low in all subgroups. MACE primarily consisted of repeat PCI (12%). Conclusion The current Euro Heart Survey on coronary revascularization was performed in the era of bare metal stenting and provides a global European picture of the invasive approach to patients with CAD. These data will serve as a benchmark for the future evaluation of the impact of drug-eluting stents on the practice of interventional cardiology and bypass surger

    Angiographic predictors of recurrence of restenosis after Wiktor stent implantation in native coronary arteries

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    Intracoronary stenting has been proposed as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty to improve the immediate and long-term results. However, late luminal narrowing has been reported following the implantation of a variety of stents. One of the studies conducted with the Wiktor stent is a prospective registry designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of elective stent implantation in patients with documented restenosis of a native coronary artery. To identify angiographic variables predicting recurrence of restenosis, the angiograms of the first 91 patients with successful stent implantation and without clinical evidence of (sub)acute thrombotic stent occlusion were analyzed with the Computer Assisted Angiographic Analysis System using automated edge detection. The incidence of restenosis was 44% by patient and 45% by stent according to the 0.72 mm criterion, and 30% by patient and 29% by stent according to the 50% diameter stenosis criterion. The risk for restenosis for several angiographic variables was determined using an univariate analysis and is expressed as odds ratio with corresponding confidence interval. The only statistically significant predictor of restenosis was the relative gain when it exceeded 0.48 using the 0.72 mm criterion (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1-6.4). Furthermore, the relation between the relative gain (increase in minimal luminal diameter normalized to vessel size) as angiographic index of vessel wall injury and relative loss (decrease in minimal luminal diameter normalized to vessel size) as index of neointimal thickening was analyzed using a linear regression analysis. When using the categorical approach to address restenosis, there is an increased risk for recurrent restenosis when the relative gain exceeds 0.48. The continuous approach underscores this concept by indicating a weak but positive relation between the relative gain and relative loss

    The consistency of the treatment effect of an ACE-inhibitor based treatment regimen in patients with vascular disease or high risk of vascular disease: A combined analysis of individual data of ADVANCE, EUROPA, and PROGRESS trials

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    AimsAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk in different groups of patients. Whether these effects can be generalized to the broad group of patients with vascular disease is unknown. Therefore, we undertook a combined analysis using individual data from ADVANCE, EUROPA, and PROGRESS to determine the consistency of the treatment effect of perindopril-based regimen in patients with vascular disease or at high risk of vascular disease.Methods and resultsWe studied all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular outcomes during a follow-up of about 4 years in the 29 463 patients randomly assigned a perindopril-based treatment regimen or placebo. The perindopril-based regimens were associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89; 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.96; P = 0.006], cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.85; 95 CI 0.76-0.95; P = 0.004), non-fatal myocardial infarction (HR 0.80; 95 CI 0.71-0.90; P < 0.001), stroke (HR 0.82; 95 CI 0.74-0.92; P = 0.002), and heart failure (HR 0.84; 95 CI 0.72-0.96; P = 0.015). Results were consistent in subgroups with different clinical characteristics, concomitant medication use, and across all strata of baseline blood pressure.ConclusionThis study provides strong evidence for a consistent cardiovascular protection with an ACE-inhibitor treatment regimen (perindopril-indapamide) by improving survival and reducing the risk of major cardiovascular events across a broad spectrum of patients with vascular disease

    Recoil following Wiktor stent implantation for restenotic lesions of coronary arteries

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    The purpose of this study was to determine acute recoil of the vessel wall immediately after Wiktor stent implantation in native coronary arteries of 77 consecutive patients and to assess whether there was compression or “late recoil” of the stent itself at long-term follow-up. Furthermore, the relationship between recoil and a number of clinical, angiographic, and procedural variables was studied in addition to the relation between acute recoil renarrowing or restenosis was assessed. All angiograms were analyzed with the Cardiovascular Angiography Analysis System using automated edge detection. Acute recoil was defined by the difference between the mean diameter of the fully expanded balloon on which the stent was mounted and the mean diameter of the stented segment. Late recoil was calculated by comparing the mean diameter of the stent itself immediately after implantation and at follow-up without opacification of the vessel. Acute recoil amounted to 0.25 ± 0.32 mm or 8.2%. Multivariate analysis identified sex (coefficient = –0.20, p = 0.04) and stent/artery ratio (coefficient = 0.99, p = 0.0001) as the only independent predictors of acute recoil. “Late recoil” of the stent itself was not observed. The overall difference between the mean diameter of the stent itself immediately after implantation and at follow-up was –0.15 ± 0.33 mm, suggesting an overall increase in diameter of 5.0%. There was no relation between acute recoil and late restenosis. On the contrary, there was a trend towards a greater degree of recoil in patients without restenosis. Moreover, linear regression analysis disclosed a weak but negative correlation between acute recoil and a loss in minimal luminal diameter (coefficient: –0.55, p = 0.04). The Wiktor stent effectively scaffolds the instrumented vessel. Only a minimal amount of acute recoil was noted, which did not contribute to late luminal renarrowing or restenosis. In addition, no late compression of the stent itself was observed. These data suggest that tissue ingrowth into the lumen of the stented segment is the main cause of late luminal renarrowing after stent implantation. © 1994 Wiley-Liss,Inc.

    Finite-size scaling above the upper critical dimension in Ising models with long-range interactions

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    The correlation length plays a pivotal role in finite-size scaling and hyperscaling at continuous phase transitions. Below the upper critical dimension, where the correlation length is proportional to the system length, both finite-size scaling and hyperscaling take conventional forms. Above the upper critical dimension these forms break down and a new scaling scenario appears. Here we investigate this scaling behaviour in one-dimensional Ising ferromagnets with long-range interactions. We show that the correlation length scales as a non-trivial power of the linear system size and investigate the scaling forms. For interactions of sufficiently long range, the disparity between the correlation length and the system length can be made arbitrarily large, while maintaining the new scaling scenarios. We also investigate the behavior of the correlation function above the upper critical dimension and the modifications imposed by the new scaling scenario onto the associated Fisher relation.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figure

    Gating of Long-Term Potentiation by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Cerebellum Input Stage

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    The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD) between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation

    Quantitative angiographic follow-up of the coronary wallstent in native vessels and bypass grafts (European experience - March 1986 to March 1990)

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    The coronary stent has been investigated as an adjunct to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty to obviate the problems of early occlusion and late restenosis. From March 1986 to March 1990, 265 patients (308 lesions) were implanted with the coronary Wallstent in 6 European centers. For this study, the patients were analyzed accordin

    Individualized angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy in stable coronary artery disease based on clinical and pharmacogenetic determinants: The PERindopril GENEtic (PERGENE) risk model

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    Background-Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) constitute a heterogeneous group in which the treatment benefits by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy vary between individuals. Our objective was to integrate clinical and pharmacogenetic determinants in an ultimate combined risk prediction model. Methods and Results-Clinical, genetic, and outcomes data were used from 8726 stable CAD patients participating in the EUROPA/PERGENE trial of perindopril versus placebo. Multivariable analysis of phenotype data resulted in a clinical risk score (range, 0-21 points). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs275651 and rs5182 in the angiotensin-II type I-receptor gene and rs12050217 in the bradykinin type I-receptor gene) were used to construct a pharmacogenetic risk score (PGXscore; range, 0-6 points). Seven hundred eighty-five patients (9.0%) experienced the primary endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction or resuscitated cardiac arrest, during 4.2 years of follow-up. Absolute risk reductions ranged from 1.2% to 7.5% in the 73.5% of patients with PGXscore of 0 t
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