244 research outputs found

    ETEC colonisation factors disrupt the antigen presenting capacity of porcine intestinal dendritic cells

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    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are not only a major cause of diarrhoea in travellers to and children in developing countries, but also cause neonatal and postweaning diarrhoea in piglets, leading to a reduced feed conversion and a higher mortality rate. As a consequence ETEC infections result in severe economic losses in the swine production industry. This intestinal pathogen displays colonisation factors or fimbriae on its surface enabling the microorganism to adhere to the intestinal epithelium (Fig. 1). In pig, F4 and F18 fimbriae are the most frequently associated with ETEC-induced diarrhoea1. As opposed to F4 fimbriae, oral immunisation with F18 fimbriae doesn’t protect piglets from a subsequent challenge infection2. F18 fimbriae bind glycosphingolipids in the apical membrane of enterocytes, but no transcytosis occurs, resulting in lower sunepithelial antigen concentrations as compared to F4 fimbriae, which bind the transcytotic receptor aminopeptidase N3,4. However, M-cell mediated transport of F18 fimbriae should still occur. Hence, besides a lower antigen concentration, these fimbriae could affect the function of intestinal antigen presenting cells. Here, we investigated the influence of purified F18 fimbriae on the antigen presentation capacity of small intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs)

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli induce pro-inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells

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    F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause severe diarrhoea in both neonatal and weaning piglets, resulting in morbidity and mortality. F4 fimbriae are a key virulence factor involved in the attachment of F4+ ETEC to the intestinal epithelium. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are recently being recognized as important regulators of the intestinal immune system through the secretion of cytokines, however, data on how F4+ ETEC affect this cytokine secretion are scarce. By using ETEC strains expressing either polymeric, monomeric or F4 fimbriae with a reduced polymeric stability, we demonstrated that polymeric fimbriae are essential for the adhesion of ETEC to porcine IEC as well as for the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by ETEC-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, this cytokine secretion was not abrogated following stimulation with an F4-negative strain. As this ETEC strain expresses flagellin, TLR5 mediated signalling could be involved. Indeed, porcine IEC express TLR5 and purified flagellin induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, indicating that, as for other pathogens, flagellin seems to be the dominant virulence factor involved in the induction of proinflammatory responses in IEC upon ETEC infection. These results indicate a potential mucosal adjuvant capacity of ETEC-derived flagellin and may improve rational vaccine design against F4+ ETEC infections

    Duality of β-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants

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    Designing efficient recombinant mucosal vaccines against enteric diseases is still a major challenge. Mucosal delivery of recombinant vaccines requires encapsulation in potent immunostimulatory particles to induce an efficient immune response. This paper evaluates the capacity of beta-glucan microparticles (GPs) as antigen vehicles and characterizes their immune-stimulatory effects. The relevant infectious antigen FedF was chosen to be loaded inside the microparticles. The incorporation of FedF inside the particles was highly efficient (roughly 85%) and occurred without antigen degradation. In addition, these GPs have immunostimulatory effects as well, demonstrated by the strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by porcine neutrophils upon their recognition. Although antigen-loaded GPs still induce ROS production, antigen loading decreases this production by neutrophils for reasons yet unknown. However, these antigen-loaded GPs are still able to bind their specific beta-glucan receptor, demonstrated by blocking complement receptor 3, which is the major beta-glucan receptor on porcine neutrophils. The dual character of these particles is confirmed by a T-cell proliferation assay. FedF-loaded particles induce a significantly higher FedF-specific T-cell proliferation than soluble FedF. Taken together, these results show that GPs are efficient antigen carriers with immune-stimulatory properties
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