44,595 research outputs found

    Cultural identity and academic achievement among Māori undergraduate university students

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    Cultural identity and academic achievement were investigated among a nonrandom sample of 72 undergraduate Māori university students studying at Massey University. Student problems were examined to identify the types of difficulties most prevalent among this population. The degree to which cultural identity moderates the relationship between student problems and academic achievement was then examined. Major findings were that (a) there is a consistent negative relationship between student problems and academic achievement; and (b) cultural identity moderates the effect of student problems on academic achievement, in that: a high degree of problems were associated with decreases in grade point average among respondents with low cultural identity; while among respondents with high cultural identity, high levels of student problems had little negative effect on grade point average. Despite the study having limitations, the findings have important implications for Māori students, deliverers of tertiary education, tertiary education providers, and those involved in the development and implementation of tertiary education policy

    Should central banks raise their inflation targets? Some relevant issues

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    Several arguments are relevant. (1) In the absence of the zero lower bound (ZLB), the optimal steady-state inflation rate, according to standard reasoning, lies between deflation at the steady-state real interest rate and the Calvo-model value of zero, with calibration indicating a larger weight on the latter. (2) An attractive modification of the Calvo equation would imply that the weight on the second of these should be zero. (3) There may be some scope for monetary policy to be effective even at the ZLB. (4) Elimination of currency is feasible and would remove the ZLB constraint. (5) Increasing target inflation would undermine the rationale for central bank independence and constitute an additional movement away from intertemporal discipline.Inflation (Finance) ; Monetary policy ; Banks and banking, Central

    Should Monetary Policy Respond Strongly to Output Gaps?

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    Much recent monetary policy analysis has featured stochastic simulations with small structural macroeconomic models that include: a spending vs. saving ( IS') sector; a price-adjustment sector; and an interest rate policy rule. The first two are frequently specified so as to reflect optimizing behavior; policy may or may not be specified as optimizing depending on the study's objectives. Some leading issues concern modifications to simple quantitative optimizing models that are needed to generate realistic degrees of persistence in inflation and output-gap variables. A major policy issue is whether it is desirable for monetary policy to respond strongly to the output gap. The paper argues that the latter is unobservable and considers the implications of using a trend-type measure while the true concept is of a type more in keeping with basic theory. In such circumstances, highly undesirable consequences are likely to ensue if policy responds strongly to the measured gap.

    The Optimal Inflation Rate in an Overlapping-Generations Economy with Land

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    This paper is concerned with the optimal inflation rate in an overlapping-generations economy in which (i) aggregate output is constrained by a standard neoclassical production function with diminishing marginal products for both capital and labor and (ii) the transaction-facilitating services of money are represented by means of a money-in-the-utility-function specification. With monetary injections provided by lump-sum transfers, the famous Chicago Rule prescription for monetary growth is necessary for Pareto optimality but a competitive equilibrium may fail to be Pareto optimal with that rule in force because of capital over accumulation. The latter possibility does not exist, however, if the economy includes an asset that is productive and non-reproducible--i.e., if the economy is one with land. As this conclusion is independent of the monetary aspects of the model, it is argued that the possibility of capital over accumulation should not be regarded as a matter of theoretical concern, even in the absence of government debt, intergenerational altruism, and social security systems or other "social contrivances."

    Monetary Policy Analysis in Models Without Money

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    The following arguments are developed: (i) models without monetary aggregates do not imply that inflation is a non-monetary phenomenon and are not necessarily non-monetary models; (ii) theoretical considerations suggest that such models are misspecified, but the quantitative significance of this misspecification is very small; (iii) some prominent arguments based on indeterminacy' findings are of dubious merit: there are reasons for believing that findings of solution multiplicity are theoretical curiosities that have no real world significance; (iv) monetary policy rules that violate the Taylor principle, by contrast, possess another characteristic the absence of E-stability that suggests undesirable behavior in practice.

    Price Level Determinacy with an Interest Rate Policy Rule and Rational Expectations

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    This paper reconsiders a result obtained by Sargent and Wallace, namely, that price level indeterminacy obtains in their well-known model if the monetary authorities adopt a policy feedback rule for the interest rate rather than the money stock. Since the Federal Reserve seems often to have used the federal funds rate as its operating instrument, with the money stack determined by the quantity demanded, this result suggests that the Sargent-Wallace model -- as well as others incorporating rational expectations -- is inconsistent with U.S. experience. It is here shown, however, that the indeterminacy result vanishes if the interest rate rule is chosen so as to have some desired effect on the expected quantity of money demanded. This revised conclusion holds even if considerable weight is given, in the choice of a rule, to the aim of smoothing interest rate fluctuations.

    The case for rules in the conduct of monetary policy: a concrete example

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    A policy rule can be activist; the distinction between rules and discretion depends on the stage at which optimization calculations enter the policy process. Here a specific monetary rule is proposed, one that sets the monetary base each quarter in a manner designed to keep nominal aggregate demand growing smoothly at a noninflationary rate. Simulations with a simple estimated model suggest that the proposed rule would have performed well over the period 1954-85, despite financial innovations and regulatory change.Monetary policy ; Inflation (Finance) ; Monetary theory

    A Linearized Version of Lucas's Neutrality Model

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    The model developed in Robert Lucas's influential "Expectations and the Neutrality of Money" has not been widely used for extensions or modifications of the original analysis, in part because of its difficulty of manipulation.The present paper describes a linearized version that--unlike other models prominent in the rational expectations literature--retains the original's mainfeatures yet is comparatively easy to manipulate.Two examples of modifications facilitated by this linearization are included. These involve an autoregressive money growth specification and the assumption of lump-sum (rather than proportional)monetary transfers.

    A Semi-Classical Model of Price Level Adjustment

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    This paper investigates the theoretical and empirical properties of a model of aggregate supply behavior that was introduced in the 1970s but has received inadequate attention. The model postulates that price changes occur so as to gradually eliminate discrepancies between actual and market-clearing values and to reflect expected changes in market-clearing values. Its implications are more 'classical' than most alternative formulations that reflect gradual price adjustment. Empirical results, which utilize a proxy for market-clearing output that is a function of fixed capital and the real price of oil, are moderately encouraging but not entirely supportive.
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