77 research outputs found

    Beyond Dissociation and Appropriation: Evaluating the Politics of U.S. Psychology Via Hermeneutic Interpretation of Culturally Embedded Presentations of Yoga

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    Psychology in the United States (U.S.) is partially constituted by a cultural history of intellectual imperialism that undermines its altruistic intent and prevents disciplinary reflexivity. The scholarship and clinical application of Yoga exemplifies the way U.S. psychology continues to give lived authority to imperialism as part of the neoliberal agenda. Through a hermeneutic literature analysis of two source Yogic texts and peer-reviewed articles that exemplify the dominant discourse on Yoga in U.S. psychology, this dissertation identified themes that describe culturally embedded presentations of Yoga and their sociopolitical implications. Through interpretation, Yoga was conceptualized as: (a) a 5,000 year-old tradition that prescribes a life path to achieving one’s full potential and includes (but is not limited to) an expression of psychology unique to Yoga that encompasses a complex moral framework, theory of mind, conceptualization of suffering and illness, and rich collection of healing technologies; (b) a phenomenological state of being, or unwavering realization of the self as undifferentiated unified consciousness; and (c) an artifact of U.S. psychology that enacts dissociated, unformulated, and unarticulated sociopolitical arrangements and events. Themes were presented as dialogue, allowing Yogic theory, philosophy, psychology, and morality to call into question facets of U.S. psychology as they relate to the human condition, psyche, mental illness, and healing technologies. Within the scope of the dissertation, there were four articulated pathways for Yoga to influence U.S. psychology without reverting back to the unconscious inclination to dissociate or appropriate: (a) participate in the tradition of Yoga rather than trying to possess it; (b) acknowledge what the moral framework of Yoga highlights about the complicity of U.S. psychology in the neoliberal agenda; (c) discontinue practices that normalize and sustain intellectual imperialism; and (d) commit to disciplinary refinement and integrity. Also addressed were the limitations of this project and fruitful avenues of further inquiry, including possible steps towards disciplinary refinement and integrity

    The Influence of Chemical and Mineral Compositions on the Parameterization of Immersion Freezing by Volcanic Ash Particles

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    Volcanic ash (VA) from explosive eruptions contributes to aerosol loadings in the atmosphere. Aside from the negative impact of VA on air quality and aviation, these particles can alter the optical and microphysical properties of clouds by triggering ice formation, thereby influencing precipitation and climate. Depending on the volcano and eruption style, VA displays a wide range of different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Here, we present a unique data set on the ice nucleation activity of 15 VA samples obtained from different volcanoes worldwide. The ice nucleation activities of these samples were studied in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud simulation chamber as well as with the Ice Nucleation Spectrometer of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (INSEKT). All VA particles nucleated ice in the immersion freezing mode from 263 to 238K with ice nucleation active site (INAS) densities ranging from ∌105^{5} to 1011^{11} m−2^{-2}, respectively. The variabilities observed among the VA samples, at any given temperature, range over 3.5 orders of magnitude. The ice-nucleating abilities of VA samples correlate to varying degrees with their bulk pyroxene and plagioclase contents as a function of temperature. We combined our new data set with existing literature data to develop an improved ice nucleation parameterization for natural VA in the immersion freezing mode. This should be useful for modeling the impact of VA on clouds

    Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques

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    In the present work, three different techniques to separate ice-nucleating particles (INPs) as well as ice particle residuals (IPRs) from non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed-phase clouds and allow after evaporation in the instrument for the analysis of the residuals. The Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) coupled with the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated particles for analysis. The instruments were run during a joint field campaign which took place in January and February 2013 at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland). INPs and IPRs were analyzed offline by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine their size, chemical composition and mixing state. Online analysis of the size and chemical composition of INP activated in FINCH was performed by laser ablation mass spectrometry. With all three INP/IPR separation techniques high abundances (median 20–70%) of instrumental contamination artifacts were observed (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH + IN-PCVI: steel particles). After removal of the instrumental contamination particles, silicates, Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types obtained by all three techniques. In addition, considerable amounts (median abundance mostly a few percent) of soluble material (e.g., sea salt, sulfates) were observed. As these soluble particles are often not expected to act as INP/IPR, we consider them as potential measurement artifacts. Minor types of INP/IPR include soot and Pb-bearing particles. The Pb-bearing particles are mainly present as an internal mixture with other particle types. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 200–400 nm in geometric diameter. In a few cases, a second supermicron maximum was identified. Soot/carbonaceous material and metal oxides were present mainly in the sub-micrometer range. Silicates and Ca-rich particles were mainly found with diameters above 1 ÎŒm (using ISI and FINCH), in contrast to the Ice-CVI which also sampled many submicron particles of both groups. Due to changing meteorological conditions, the INP/IPR composition was highly variable if different samples were compared. Thus, the observed discrepancies between the different separation techniques may partly result from the non-parallel sampling. The differences of the particle group relative number abundance as well as the mixing state of INP/IPR clearly demonstrate the need of further studies to better understand the influence of the separation techniques on the INP/IPR chemical composition. Also, it must be concluded that the abundance of contamination artifacts in the separated INP and IPR is generally large and should be corrected for, emphasizing the need for the accompanying chemical measurements. Thus, further work is needed to allow for routine operation of the three separation techniques investigated

    Disk-Jet Connection in the Radio Galaxy 3C 120

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    We present the results of extensive multi-frequency monitoring of the radio galaxy 3C 120 between 2002 and 2007 at X-ray, optical, and radio wave bands, as well as imaging with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Over the 5 yr of observation, significant dips in the X-ray light curve are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the VLBA images. Consistent with this, the X-ray flux and 37 GHz flux are anti-correlated with X-ray leading the radio variations. This implies that, in this radio galaxy, the radiative state of accretion disk plus corona system, where the X-rays are produced, has a direct effect on the events in the jet, where the radio emission originates. The X-ray power spectral density of 3C 120 shows a break, with steeper slope at shorter timescale and the break timescale is commensurate with the mass of the central black hole based on observations of Seyfert galaxies and black hole X-ray binaries. These findings provide support for the paradigm that black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei are fundamentally similar systems, with characteristic time and size scales linearly proportional to the mass of the central black hole. The X-ray and optical variations are strongly correlated in 3C 120, which implies that the optical emission in this object arises from the same general region as the X-rays, i.e., in the accretion disk-corona system. We numerically model multi-wavelength light curves of 3C 120 from such a system with the optical-UV emission produced in the disk and the X-rays generated by scattering of thermal photons by hot electrons in the corona. From the comparison of the temporal properties of the model light curves to that of the observed variability, we constrain the physical size of the corona and the distances of the emitting regions from the central BH.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. 28 pages, 21 figures, 2 table

    The Influence of Chemical and Mineral Compositions on the Parameterization of Immersion Freezing by Volcanic Ash Particles

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    Funder: Helmholtz Association of German Research CentresAbstract: Volcanic ash (VA) from explosive eruptions contributes to aerosol loadings in the atmosphere. Aside from the negative impact of VA on air quality and aviation, these particles can alter the optical and microphysical properties of clouds by triggering ice formation, thereby influencing precipitation and climate. Depending on the volcano and eruption style, VA displays a wide range of different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Here, we present a unique data set on the ice nucleation activity of 15 VA samples obtained from different volcanoes worldwide. The ice nucleation activities of these samples were studied in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud simulation chamber as well as with the Ice Nucleation Spectrometer of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (INSEKT). All VA particles nucleated ice in the immersion freezing mode from 263 to 238K with ice nucleation active site (INAS) densities ranging from ∌105 to 1011 m−2, respectively. The variabilities observed among the VA samples, at any given temperature, range over 3.5 orders of magnitude. The ice‐nucleating abilities of VA samples correlate to varying degrees with their bulk pyroxene and plagioclase contents as a function of temperature. We combined our new data set with existing literature data to develop an improved ice nucleation parameterization for natural VA in the immersion freezing mode. This should be useful for modeling the impact of VA on clouds

    L’accompagnement-citoyen en soutien Ă  la participation sociale des aĂźnĂ©s ayant un traumatisme craniocĂ©rĂ©bral

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    Hautement valorisĂ©e par les aĂźnĂ©s, la participation sociale a des effets bĂ©nĂ©fiques sur leur santĂ© biopsychosociale. Tous n’ont pas cependant les mĂȘmes opportunitĂ©s pour s’investir dans ce type d’activitĂ©s; particuliĂšrement ceux ayant un traumatisme craniocĂ©rĂ©bral (TCC) qui sont plus susceptibles d’ĂȘtre limitĂ©s dans leurs capacitĂ©s Ă  participer Ă  la vie de la communautĂ©. Les initiatives les plus courantes pour aider ces personnes consistent en une assistance humaine visant Ă pallierleurs limitations et ne misent pas, en prioritĂ©, sur la promotion de leurs compĂ©tences. Afin d’optimiser l’aide reçue, un accompagnementcitoyen personnalisĂ© Ă  l’intĂ©gration communautaire (APIC) a Ă©tĂ© dĂ©veloppĂ©, implantĂ© et Ă©valuĂ©. Cet article documente l’impact de l’APIC sur la participation sociale d’aĂźnĂ©s ayant un TCC. Une analyse de contenu thĂ©matique a Ă©tĂ© rĂ©alisĂ©e sur les donnĂ©es issues d’entrevues semi-dirigĂ©es auprĂšs des participants et des journaux de bord des accompagnateurs. Les rĂ©sultats montrent trois grandes retombĂ©es de l’APIC : une meilleure assurance et un plus grand sentiment d’autonomie, un goĂ»t retrouvĂ© de s’investir dans des activitĂ©s de loisirs signifiantes, et une plus grande ouverture vers de nouvelles possibilitĂ©s de relations.Abstract : Highly valued by seniors, community integration has beneficial effects on their biopsychosocial health. However, not all of them have the same opportunities to engage in social participation activities, particularly those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who are more likely to be limited in their abilities to participate in the life of the community. The most common initiatives to help these people consist of human assistance to overcome their limitations and which do not focus on skills promotion. In order to optimize the available services and resources, personalized citizen assistance for community integration (APIC) has been developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article documents the impact of APIC on the community integration of seniors with TBI. A thematic content analysis was conducted on data from semi-structured interviews with participants and from attendant logbooks. The results show three major spin-offs from APIC: better insurance and a greater sense of autonomy, a renewed taste for investing in meaningful leisure activities, and greater openness to new relationship opportunities

    Multidimensional Signals and Analytic Flexibility: Estimating Degrees of Freedom in Human-Speech Analyses

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    Recent empirical studies have highlighted the large degree of analytic flexibility in data analysis that can lead to substantially different conclusions based on the same data set. Thus, researchers have expressed their concerns that these researcher degrees of freedom might facilitate bias and can lead to claims that do not stand the test of time. Even greater flexibility is to be expected in fields in which the primary data lend themselves to a variety of possible operationalizations. The multidimensional, temporally extended nature of speech constitutes an ideal testing ground for assessing the variability in analytic approaches, which derives not only from aspects of statistical modeling but also from decisions regarding the quantification of the measured behavior. In this study, we gave the same speech-production data set to 46 teams of researchers and asked them to answer the same research question, resulting in substantial variability in reported effect sizes and their interpretation. Using Bayesian meta-analytic tools, we further found little to no evidence that the observed variability can be explained by analysts’ prior beliefs, expertise, or the perceived quality of their analyses. In light of this idiosyncratic variability, we recommend that researchers more transparently share details of their analysis, strengthen the link between theoretical construct and quantitative system, and calibrate their (un)certainty in their conclusions
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