110 research outputs found

    Temperature calibration procedure for thin film substrates for thermo-ellipsometric analysis using melting point standards

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    Precise and accurate temperature control is pertinent to studying thermally activated processes in thin films. Here, we present a calibration method for the substrate–film interface temperature using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The method is adapted from temperature calibration methods that are well developed for thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry instruments, and is based on probing a transition temperature. Indium, lead, and zinc could be spread on a substrate, and the phase transition of these metals could be detected by a change in the C signal of the ellipsometer. For water, the phase transition could be detected by a loss of signal intensity as a result of light scattering by the ice crystals. The combined approach allowed for construction of a linear calibration curve with an accuracy of 1.3 C or lower over the full temperature range

    Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

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    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal treatment, the bio-organic material is removed and the inorganic particles are sintered. The method is applicable to the fabrication of various inorganic fibers, including metals and ceramics. The route completely avoids the use of organic solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and additives associated with the currently used fiber fabrication methods. In addition, it inherently avoids the manifestation of so-called macro voids and allows the facile incorporation of additional metal oxides in the inorganic hollow fibers

    Comparing amine- and ammonium functionalized silsesquioxanes for large scale synthesis of hybrid polyimide high-temperature gas separation membranes

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    PolyPOSS-imide membranes are promising for separating H2 from larger molecules (CO2, N2, CH4) at temperatures up to 300 °C. Their fabrication involves two steps: interfacial polymerization of POSS and 6FDA, followed by thermal imidization. This work provides a systematic study of the effects of cations on membrane properties and performance. For this, two distinct POSS molecules were used: functionalized with -NH3+Cl− or, so far unexplored, -NH2. The ammonium groups are partially deprotonated by using three different bases, LiOH, NaOH, and KOH. We demonstrate that the introduced cations affect the film thickness but not the molecular composition of the polyamic acid. All polyamic acids can be imidized, but the cations reduce the imidization kinetics as well as the loss of organic crosslinkers. For flat disc membranes, at 200 °C, the absence of cations results in comparable permeability combined with higher selectivity for H2/N2. This, and the possibility to discard adding a base, motivated a scale-up study of the new POSS. For tubular membranes, much higher ideal and mixed gas selectivities are found than for membranes where NaOH was added. Results indicate that the new route allows more reproducible production of defect free membranes and has potential for larger-scale polyPOSSimide fabrication.publishedVersio

    Stability investigation of polyPOSS-imide membranes for H2 purification and their application in the steel industry

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    In the present work, the high-temperature and long-term hydrothermal stability of novel polyPOSS-imide membranes for high-temperature hydrogen separation is investigated. The polyPOSS-imide membranes are found to exhibit an appropriate stability up to 300 C. Above this temperature the membrane selectivity rapidly decreases, which is seemingly related to changes in the molecular structure coupled to silanol condensation forming siloxane groups. Surprisingly, the exposure of the membrane to temperatures of up to 300 C even increases the H2 permeance together with the selective feature of the polyPOSS-imide layer. Subsequently, the long-term hydrothermal stability of the polyPOSS-imide membranes was investigated over a period of close to 1000 h at 250 C exposing the membrane to 10 mol% steam in the feed. An increase in H2/CH4 selectivity was observed upon water addition, and even though a minor drop was noticed over time during the hydrothermal operation, the selectivity exceeds the initial selectivity obtained in the dry feed atmosphere. After the removal of steam from the feed, the performance returns to its original state prior to the exposure to any steam showing appropriate steam stability of the polyPOSS-imide membranes. A conceptual process design and assessment was performed for application of these membranes involving a combination of carbon reuse and electrification of the steel making process with co-production of hydrogen. The results indicate a CO2 avoidance of 14%. The CO2 reduction achieved using renewable electricity in the proposed scheme is a factor 2.76 higher compared to a situation where the same renewable electricity would be fed in the electricity grid.publishedVersio
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