233 research outputs found

    Computational modeling and minimization of unintended neuronal excitation in a LIFU stimulation

    No full text
    Abstract The neuromodulation effect of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) is highly target-specific. Unintended off-target neuronal excitation can be elicited when the beam focusing accuracy and resolution are limited, whereas the resulted side effect has not been evaluated quantitatively. There is also a lack of methods addressing the minimization of such side effects. Therefore, this work introduces a computational model of unintended neuronal excitation during LIFU neuromodulation, which evaluates the off-target activation area (OTAA) by integrating an ultrasound field model with the neuronal spiking model. In addition, a phased array beam focusing scheme called constrained optimal resolution beamforming (CORB) is proposed to minimize the off-target neuronal excitation area while ensuring effective stimulation in the target brain region. A lower bound of the OTAA is analytically approximated in a simplified homogeneous medium, which could guide the selection of transducer parameters such as aperture size and operating frequency. Simulations in a human head model using three transducer setups show that CORB markedly reduces the OTAA compared with two benchmark beam focusing methods. The high neuromodulation resolution demonstrates the capability of LIFU to effectively limit the side effects during neuromodulation, allowing future clinical applications such as treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders

    On integer-forcing precoding for the gaussian MIMO broadcast channel

    No full text
    Integer-forcing (IF) precoding, also known as downlink IF, is a promising new approach to communication over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channels. Inspired by the integer-forcing linear receiver for multiple-access channels, it generalizes linear precoding by inducing an effective channel matrix that is approximately integer, rather than approximately identity. Combined with lattice encoding and a pre-inversion of the channel matrix at the transmitter, the scheme has the potential to outperform any linear precoding scheme, despite enjoying similar low complexity. In this paper, a specific IF precoding scheme, called diagonally scaled exact IF (DIF), is proposed and shown to achieve maximum spatial multiplexing gain. For the special case of two receivers, in the high SNR regime, an optimal choice of parameters is derived analytically, leading to an almost closed-form expression for the achievable sum rate. In particular, it is shown that the gap to the sum capacity is upper bounded by 0.27 bits for any channel realization. For general SNR, a regularized version of DIF (RDIF) is proposed. Numerical results for two receivers under Rayleigh fading show that RDIF can achieve performance superior to optimal linear precoding and very close to the sum capacity16744764488CONSELHO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO CIENTÍFICO E TECNOLÓGICO - CNPQCOORDENAÇÃO DE APERFEIÇOAMENTO DE PESSOAL DE NÍVEL SUPERIOR - CAPES475482/2012-3BEX10714/14-6The work of D. Silva was supported by CNPq-Brazil under Grant 475482/2012-3. The work of G. F. Pivaro was supported by CAPES-Brazil under Grant BEX10714/14-6. The work of B. Aazhang was supported by NSF under Grant NeTS 1527811 and Grant EARS 154730

    Universal Frame Thresholding

    No full text

    Mutual Information in Frequency and its Application to Measure Cross-Frequency Coupling in Epilepsy

    Full text link
    We define a metric, mutual information in frequency (MI-in-frequency), to detect and quantify the statistical dependence between different frequency components in the data, referred to as cross-frequency coupling and apply it to electrophysiological recordings from the brain to infer cross-frequency coupling. The current metrics used to quantify the cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience cannot detect if two frequency components in non-Gaussian brain recordings are statistically independent or not. Our MI-in-frequency metric, based on Shannon's mutual information between the Cramer's representation of stochastic processes, overcomes this shortcoming and can detect statistical dependence in frequency between non-Gaussian signals. We then describe two data-driven estimators of MI-in-frequency: one based on kernel density estimation and the other based on the nearest neighbor algorithm and validate their performance on simulated data. We then use MI-in-frequency to estimate mutual information between two data streams that are dependent across time, without making any parametric model assumptions. Finally, we use the MI-in- frequency metric to investigate the cross-frequency coupling in seizure onset zone from electrocorticographic recordings during seizures. The inferred cross-frequency coupling characteristics are essential to optimize the spatial and spectral parameters of electrical stimulation based treatments of epilepsy.Comment: This paper is accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing and contains 15 pages, 9 figures and 1 tabl

    Optimal Signaling of MISO Full-Duplex Two-Way Wireless Channel

    Full text link
    We model the self-interference in a multiple input single output (MISO) full-duplex two-way channel and evaluate the achievable rate region. We formulate the boundary of the achievable rate region termed as the Pareto boundary by a family of coupled, non-convex optimization problems. Our main contribution is decoupling and reformulating the original non-convex optimization problems to a family of convex semidefinite programming problems. For a MISO full-duplex two-way channel, we prove that beamforming is an optimal transmission strategy which can achieve any point on the Pareto boundary. Furthermore, we present a closed-form expression for the optimal beamforming weights. In our numerical examples we quantify gains in the achievable rates of the proposed beamforming over the zero-forcing beamforming.Comment: To appear in IEEE ICC 2015, London, U
    corecore