349 research outputs found

    Desmopressin for patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage taking antiplatelet drugs (DASH): a UK-based, phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre feasibility trial

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    Background The risk of death from spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is increased for people taking antiplatelet drugs. We aimed to assess the feasibility of randomising patients on antiplatelet drug therapy with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage to desmopressin or placebo to reduce the antiplatelet drug effect. Methods DASH was a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre feasibility trial. Patients were recruited from ten acute stroke centres in the UK and were eligible if they had an intracerebral haemorrhage with stroke symptom onset within 24 h of randomisation, were aged 18 years or older, and were taking an antiplatelet drug. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to a single dose of intravenous desmopressin 20 μg or matching placebo. Treatment allocation was concealed from all staff and patients involved in the trial. The primary outcome was feasibility, which was measured as the number of eligible patients randomised and the proportion of eligible patients approached, and analysis was by intention to treat. The trial was prospectively registered with ISRCTN (reference ISRCTN67038373), and it is closed to recruitment. Findings Between April 1, 2019, and March 31, 2022, 1380 potential participants were screened for eligibility. 176 (13%) participants were potentially eligible, of whom 57 (32%) were approached, and 54 (31%) consented and were subsequently recruited and randomly assigned to receive desmopressin (n=27) or placebo (n=27). The main reason for eligible patients not being recruited was the patient arriving out of hours (74 [61%] of 122 participants). The recruitment rate increased after the enrolment period was extended from 12 h to 24 h, but it was then impaired due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 54 participants included in the analysis (mean age 76·4 years [SD 11·3]), most were male (36 [67%]) and White (50 [93%]). 53 (98%) of 54 participants received all of their allocated treatment (one participant assigned desmopressin only received part of the infusion). No participants were lost to follow-up or withdrew from the trial. Death or dependency on others for daily activities at day 90 (modified Rankin Scale score >4) occurred in six (22%) of 27 participants in the desmopressin group and ten (37%) of 27 participants in the placebo group. Serious adverse events occurred in 12 (44%) participants in the desmopressin group and 13 (48%) participants in the placebo group. The most common adverse events were expansion of the haemorrhagic stroke (four [15%] of 27 participants in the desmopressin group and six [22%] of 27 participants in the placebo group) and pneumonia (one [4%] of 27 participants in the desmopressin group and six [22%] of 27 participants in the placebo group). Interpretation Our results show it is feasible to randomise patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage who are taking antiplatelet drugs to desmopressin or placebo. Our findings support the need for a definitive trial to determine if desmopressin improves outcomes in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage on antiplatelet drug therapy.</p

    Brief Consent Methods Enable Rapid Enrollment in Acute Stroke Trial: Results From the TICH-2 Randomized Controlled Trial

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    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Seeking consent rapidly in acute stroke trials is crucial as interventions are time sensitive. We explored the association between consent pathways and time to enrollment in the TICH-2 (Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Haemorrhage-2) randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Consent was provided by patients or by a relative or an independent doctor in incapacitated patients, using a 1-stage (full written consent) or 2-stage (initial brief consent followed by full written consent post-randomization) approach. The computed tomography-to-randomization time according to consent pathways was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours. RESULTS: Of 2325 patients, 817 (35%) gave self-consent using 1-stage (557; 68%) or 2-stage consent (260; 32%). For 1507 (65%), consent was provided by a relative (1 stage, 996 [66%]; 2 stage, 323 [21%]) or a doctor (all 2-stage, 188 [12%]). One patient did not record prerandomization consent, with written consent obtained subsequently. The median (interquartile range) computed tomography-to-randomization time was 55 (38-93) minutes for doctor consent, 55 (37-95) minutes for 2-stage patient, 69 (43-110) minutes for 2-stage relative, 75 (48-124) minutes for 1-stage patient, and 90 (56-155) minutes for 1-stage relative consents (P<0.001). Two-stage consent was associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours compared with 1-stage consent (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.5-2.4]). Doctor consent increased the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3 [1.5-3.5]) while relative consent reduced the odds of randomization ≤3 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10 [0.03-0.34]) compared with patient consent. Only 2 of 771 patients (0.3%) in the 2-stage pathways withdrew consent when full consent was sought later. Two-stage consent process did not result in higher withdrawal rates or loss to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The use of initial brief consent was associated with shorter times to enrollment, while maintaining good participant retention. Seeking written consent from relatives was associated with significant delays. Registration: URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214

    Outcomes after perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with proximal femoral fractures: an international cohort study

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    Objectives Studies have demonstrated high rates of mortality in people with proximal femoral fracture and SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited published data on the factors that influence mortality for clinicians to make informed treatment decisions. This study aims to report the 30-day mortality associated with perioperative infection of patients undergoing surgery for proximal femoral fractures and to examine the factors that influence mortality in a multivariate analysis. Setting Prospective, international, multicentre, observational cohort study. Participants Patients undergoing any operation for a proximal femoral fracture from 1 February to 30 April 2020 and with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection (either 7 days prior or 30-day postoperative). Primary outcome 30-day mortality. Multivariate modelling was performed to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. Results This study reports included 1063 patients from 174 hospitals in 19 countries. Overall 30-day mortality was 29.4% (313/1063). In an adjusted model, 30-day mortality was associated with male gender (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.13, p80 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.31, p=0.013), preoperative diagnosis of dementia (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.16, p=0.005), kidney disease (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.55, p=0.005) and congestive heart failure (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.48, p=0.025). Mortality at 30 days was lower in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 (0.42 to 0.85), p=0.004). There was no difference in mortality in patients with an increase to delay in surgery (p=0.220) or type of anaesthetic given (p=0.787). Conclusions Patients undergoing surgery for a proximal femoral fracture with a perioperative infection of SARS-CoV-2 have a high rate of mortality. This study would support the need for providing these patients with individualised medical and anaesthetic care, including medical optimisation before theatre. Careful preoperative counselling is needed for those with a proximal femoral fracture and SARS-CoV-2, especially those in the highest risk groups. Trial registration number NCT0432364

    Brief Consent Methods Enable Rapid Enrollment in Acute Stroke Trial: Results From the TICH-2 Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Seeking consent rapidly in acute stroke trials is crucial as interventions are time sensitive. We explored the association between consent pathways and time to enrollment in the TICH-2 (Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Haemorrhage-2) randomized controlled trial. METHODS Consent was provided by patients or by a relative or an independent doctor in incapacitated patients, using a 1-stage (full written consent) or 2-stage (initial brief consent followed by full written consent post-randomization) approach. The computed tomography-to-randomization time according to consent pathways was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours. RESULTS Of 2325 patients, 817 (35%) gave self-consent using 1-stage (557; 68%) or 2-stage consent (260; 32%). For 1507 (65%), consent was provided by a relative (1 stage, 996 [66%]; 2 stage, 323 [21%]) or a doctor (all 2-stage, 188 [12%]). One patient did not record prerandomization consent, with written consent obtained subsequently. The median (interquartile range) computed tomography-to-randomization time was 55 (38-93) minutes for doctor consent, 55 (37-95) minutes for 2-stage patient, 69 (43-110) minutes for 2-stage relative, 75 (48-124) minutes for 1-stage patient, and 90 (56-155) minutes for 1-stage relative consents (<0.001). Two-stage consent was associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours compared with 1-stage consent (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.5-2.4]). Doctor consent increased the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3 [1.5-3.5]) while relative consent reduced the odds of randomization ≤3 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10 [0.03-0.34]) compared with patient consent. Only 2 of 771 patients (0.3%) in the 2-stage pathways withdrew consent when full consent was sought later. Two-stage consent process did not result in higher withdrawal rates or loss to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The use of initial brief consent was associated with shorter times to enrollment, while maintaining good participant retention. Seeking written consent from relatives was associated with significant delays. Registration: URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214

    The Landscape of Videofluoroscopy in the UK: A Web-Based Survey

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    Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is considered one of the gold-standard assessments of swallowing. Whilst guidelines for the application and conduct of VFS exist, their translation into clinical practice remain challenging. To build a greater understanding on how VFS clinics operate in the UK. A web-based survey was shared with speech and language therapists (SLTs) working in VFS clinics via professional networks and social media from October 2018 to January 2019. 101 responses were received. Two thirds of clinics were SLT-led, with the majority of clinics being run by two SLTs (73.6%) and a radiographer (95.5%) also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists. Less than 50% of radiographers had received specialist training. Around half of the clinics used a standard assessment or analysis protocol and 88.1% a rating scale. Set recipes for a range of textures were used in 53.4% of VFS clinics. Barium and water soluble contrasts were used, but only 15.8% knew the concentration of contrast used. The most commonly reported VFS pulse and frame rate was 15 per second. There was evidence of a lack of SLT knowledge regarding technical operation of VFS. Screening times varied from 0.7–10 min (median 3 min, IQR 2.5–3.5). Around 50% of respondents reported quality issues affecting analysis. In a survey of UK SLTs, translation of VFS guidance into practice was found to be limited which may impact on the quality of assessment and analysis. Collaboration with radiology, strengthening of guidelines and greater uptake of specialist training is deemed essential

    New testosterone 2% gel using Ferring Advanced Skin Technology (FAST), for the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men, with a novel applicator.

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    INTRODUCTION Testosterone deficiency (TD) is an increasing problem that can affect a man's physical and psychological health, and quality of life. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), combined with weight reduction, lifestyle advice, and the treatment of co-morbidities, is the treatment of choice in men who are not concerned about fertility. However, there remains an unmet need in this therapeutic area, relating to factors such as inconvenient or painful administration, fluctuations in testosterone levels, supra-physiologic testosterone levels, poor tolerability, and secondary safety issues, which may be associated with the current TRT options. Advances in transdermal delivery systems have resulted in the development of a new 2% transdermal testosterone gel, that may offer some additional features over the other currently available TRTs. AREAS COVERED We performed a comprehensive review of the published and gray literature to identify randomized studies and non-randomized studies (NRS) involving adult men receiving treatment for low testosterone levels. EXPERT OPINION Topical gels are often the most convenient first-line treatment for testosterone deficiency, but options are important as patient preference is more important than virtually any other clinical area of medicine. The chosen therapy must be convenient to use and reach reliable therapeutic levels to effectively and consistently relieve symptoms. Testavan, a new 2% testosterone gel, goes some way to achieving these goals

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28–2·40], p\textless0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65–3·22], p\textless0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3–5 versus grades 1–2 (2·35 [1·57–3·53], p\textless0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01–2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06–2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01–2·31], p=0·047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research
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